The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
parse \parse\ (p[aum]rs), v. t. [imp. & p. p. parsed
(p[aum]rst); p. pr. & vb. n. parsing.] [L. pars a part;
pars orationis a part of speech. See Part, n.] (Gram.)
To resolve into its elements, as a sentence, pointing out the
several parts of speech, and their relation to each other by
government or agreement; to analyze and describe
Let him construe the letter into English, and parse it
over perfectly. --Ascham.
The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018):
An algorithm or program to determine the
syntactic structure of ("to parse") a sentence or string of
symbols in some language. A parser normally takes as input
a sequence of tokens output by a lexical analyser. It may
produce some kind of abstract syntax tree as output. A
parser may be produced automatically from a grammar by a
parser generator such as yacc.
A parser is normally part of some larger program, like a
compiler, which takes the output of the parser and attempts
to extract meaning from it in some way, e.g. translating it
into another language.