Search Result for "vitreous electricity":
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Positive \Pos"i*tive\, a. [OE. positif, F. positif, L. positivus. See Position.] 1. Having a real position, existence, or energy; existing in fact; real; actual; -- opposed to negative. "Positive good." --Bacon. [1913 Webster] 2. Derived from an object by itself; not dependent on changing circumstances or relations; absolute; -- opposed to relative; as, the idea of beauty is not positive, but depends on the different tastes individuals. [1913 Webster] 3. Definitely laid down; explicitly stated; clearly expressed; -- opposed to implied; as, a positive declaration or promise. [1913 Webster] Positive words, that he would not bear arms against King Edward's son. --Bacon. [1913 Webster] 4. Hence: Not admitting of any doubt, condition, qualification, or discretion; not dependent on circumstances or probabilities; not speculative; compelling assent or obedience; peremptory; indisputable; decisive; as, positive instructions; positive truth; positive proof. "'T is positive 'gainst all exceptions." --Shak. [1913 Webster] 5. Prescribed by express enactment or institution; settled by arbitrary appointment; said of laws. [1913 Webster] In laws, that which is natural bindeth universally; that which is positive, not so. --Hooker. [1913 Webster] 6. Fully assured; confident; certain; sometimes, overconfident; dogmatic; overbearing; -- said of persons. [1913 Webster] Some positive, persisting fops we know, That, if once wrong, will needs be always. --Pope. [1913 Webster] 7. Having the power of direct action or influence; as, a positive voice in legislation. --Swift. [1913 Webster] 8. (Photog.) Corresponding with the original in respect to the position of lights and shades, instead of having the lights and shades reversed; as, a positive picture. [1913 Webster] 9. (Chem.) (a) Electro-positive. (b) Hence, basic; metallic; not acid; -- opposed to negative, and said of metals, bases, and basic radicals. [1913 Webster] 10. (Mach. & Mech.) (a) Designating, or pertaining to, a motion or device in which the movement derived from a driver, or the grip or hold of a restraining piece, is communicated through an unyielding intermediate piece or pieces; as, a claw clutch is a positive clutch, while a friction clutch is not. (b) Designating, or pertaining to, a device giving a to-and-fro motion; as, a positive dobby. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] 11. (Vehicles) Designating a method of steering or turning in which the steering wheels move so that they describe concentric arcs in making a turn, to insure freedom from side slip or harmful resistance. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] Positive crystals (Opt.), a doubly refracting crystal in which the index of refraction for the extraordinary ray is greater than for the ordinary ray, and the former is refracted nearer to the axis than the latter, as quartz and ice; -- opposed to negative crystal, or one in which this characteristic is reversed, as Iceland spar, tourmaline, etc. Positive degree (Gram.), that state of an adjective or adverb which denotes simple quality, without comparison or relation to increase or diminution; as, wise, noble. Positive electricity (Elec), the kind of electricity which is developed when glass is rubbed with silk, or which appears at that pole of a voltaic battery attached to the plate that is not attacked by the exciting liquid; -- formerly called vitreous electricity; -- opposed to negative electricity. Positive eyepiece. See under Eyepiece. Positive law. See Municipal law, under Law. Positive motion (Mach.), motion which is derived from a driver through unyielding intermediate pieces, or by direct contact, and not through elastic connections, nor by means of friction, gravity, etc.; definite motion. Positive philosophy. See Positivism. Positive pole. (a) (Elec.) The pole of a battery or pile which yields positive or vitreous electricity; -- opposed to negative pole. (b) (Magnetism) The north pole. [R.] Positive quantity (Alg.), an affirmative quantity, or one affected by the sign plus [+]. Positive rotation (Mech.), left-handed rotation. Positive sign (Math.), the sign [+] denoting plus, or more, or addition. [1913 Webster]The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Vitreous \Vit"re*ous\, a. [L. vitreous, from vitrum glass; perhaps akin to videre to see (see Vision). Cf. Varnish.] 1. Consisting of, or resembling, glass; glassy; as, vitreous rocks. [1913 Webster] 2. Of or pertaining to glass; derived from glass; as, vitreous electricity. [1913 Webster] Vitreous body (Anat.), the vitreous humor. See the Note under Eye. Vitreous electricity (Elec.), the kind of electricity excited by rubbing glass with certain substances, as silk; positive electricity; -- opposed to resinous, or negative, electricity. Vitreous humor. (Anat.) See the Note under Eye. Vitreous sponge (Zool.), any one of numerous species of siliceous sponges having, often fibrous, glassy spicules which are normally six-rayed; a hexactinellid sponge. See Venus's basket, under Venus. [1913 Webster]The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Electricity \E`lec*tric"i*ty\ ([=e]`l[e^]k*tr[i^]s"[i^]*t[y^]), n.; pl. Electricities ([=e]`l[e^]k*tr[i^]s"[i^]*t[i^]z). [Cf. F. ['e]lectricit['e]. See Electric.] 1. (Physics) a property of certain of the fundamental particles of which matter is composed, called also electric charge, and being of two types, designated positive and negative; the property of electric charge on a particle or physical body creates a force field which affects other particles or bodies possessing electric charge; positive charges create a repulsive force between them, and negative charges also create a repulsive force. A positively charged body and a negatively charged body will create an attractive force between them. The unit of electrical charge is the coulomb, and the intensity of the force field at any point is measured in volts. [PJC] 2. any of several phenomena associated with the accumulation or movement of electrically charged particles within material bodies, classified as static electricity and electric current. Static electricity is often observed in everyday life, when it causes certain materials to cling together; when sufficient static charge is accumulated, an electric current may pass through the air between two charged bodies, and is observed as a visible spark; when the spark passes from a human body to another object it may be felt as a mild to strong painful sensation. Electricity in the form of electric current is put to many practical uses in electrical and electronic devices. Lightning is also known to be a form of electric current passing between clouds and the ground, or between two clouds. Electric currents may produce heat, light, concussion, and often chemical changes when passed between objects or through any imperfectly conducting substance or space. Accumulation of electrical charge or generation of a voltage differnce between two parts of a complex object may be caused by any of a variety of disturbances of molecular equilibrium, whether from a chemical, physical, or mechanical, cause. Electric current in metals and most other solid coductors is carried by the movement of electrons from one part of the metal to another. In ionic solutions and in semiconductors, other types of movement of charged particles may be responsible for the observed electrical current. [PJC] Note: Electricity is manifested under following different forms: (a) Statical electricity, called also Frictional electricity or Common electricity, electricity in the condition of a stationary charge, in which the disturbance is produced by friction, as of glass, amber, etc., or by induction. (b) Dynamical electricity, called also Voltaic electricity, electricity in motion, or as a current produced by chemical decomposition, as by means of a voltaic battery, or by mechanical action, as by dynamo-electric machines. (c) Thermoelectricity, in which the disturbing cause is heat (attended possibly with some chemical action). It is developed by uniting two pieces of unlike metals in a bar, and then heating the bar unequally. (d) Atmospheric electricity, any condition of electrical disturbance in the atmosphere or clouds, due to some or all of the above mentioned causes. (e) Magnetic electricity, electricity developed by the action of magnets. (f) Positive electricity, the electricity that appears at the positive pole or anode of a battery, or that is produced by friction of glass; -- called also vitreous electricity. (g) Negative electricity, the electricity that appears at the negative pole or cathode, or is produced by the friction of resinous substance; -- called also resinous electricity. (h) Organic electricity, that which is developed in organic structures, either animal or vegetable, the phrase animal electricity being much more common. [1913 Webster] 3. The science which studies the phenomena and laws of electricity; electrical science. [1913 Webster] 4. Fig.: excitement, anticipation, or emotional tension, usually caused by the occurrence or expectation of something unusual or important.