The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Solar \So"lar\, a. [L. solaris, fr. sol the sun; akin to As.
s[=o]l, Icel. s[=o]l, Goth. sauil, Lith. saule, W. haul,.
sul, Skr. svar, perhaps to E. sun:F. solaire. Cf. Parasol.
1. Of or pertaining to the sun; proceeding from the sun; as,
the solar system; solar light; solar rays; solar
influence. See Solar system, below.
2. (Astrol.) Born under the predominant influence of the sun.
And proud beside, as solar people are. --Dryden.
3. Measured by the progress or revolution of the sun in the
ecliptic; as, the solar year.
4. Produced by the action of the sun, or peculiarly affected
by its influence.
They denominate some herbs solar, and some lunar.
Solar cycle. See under Cycle.
Solar day. See Day, 2.
Solar engine, an engine in which the energy of solar heat
is used to produce motion, as in evaporating water for a
steam engine, or expanding air for an air engine.
Solar flowers (Bot.), flowers which open and shut daily at
Solar lamp, an argand lamp.
Solar microscope, a microscope consisting essentially,
first, of a mirror for reflecting a beam of sunlight
through the tube, which sometimes is fixed in a window
shutter; secondly, of a condenser, or large lens, for
converging the beam upon the object; and, thirdly, of a
small lens, or magnifier, for throwing an enlarged image
of the object at its focus upon a screen in a dark room or
in a darkened box.
Solar month. See under Month.
Solar oil, a paraffin oil used an illuminant and lubricant.
Solar phosphori (Physics), certain substances, as the
diamond, siulphide of barium (Bolognese or Bologna
phosphorus), calcium sulphide, etc., which become
phosphorescent, and shine in the dark, after exposure to
sunlight or other intense light.
Solar plexus (Anat.), a nervous plexus situated in the
dorsal and anterior part of the abdomen, consisting of
several sympathetic ganglia with connecting and radiating
nerve fibers; -- so called in allusion to the radiating
Solar spots. See Sun spots, under Sun.
Solar system (Astron.), the sun, with the group of
celestial bodies which, held by its attraction, revolve
round it. The system comprises the major planets, with
their satellites; the minor planets, or asteroids, and the
comets; also, the meteorids, the matter that furnishes the
zodiacal light, and the rings of Saturn. The satellites
that revolve about the major planets are twenty-two in
number, of which the Earth has one (see Moon.), Mars
two, Jupiter five, Saturn nine, Uranus four, and Neptune
one. The asteroids, between Mars and Jupiter, thus far
discovered (1900), number about five hundred, the first
four of which were found near the beginning of the
century, and are called Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta.
Note: The principal elements of the major planets, and of the
comets seen at more than one perihelion passage, are
exhibited in the following tables:
[1913 Webster] I. -- Major Planets. Symbol.Name.Mean
distance -- that of the Earth being unity.Period in
days.Eccentricity.Inclination of orbit.Diameter in
[1913 Webster] II. -- Periodic Comets. Name.Greatest
distance from sun.Least distance from sun.Inclination
of orbit.Perihelion passage. [deg] [min] 54
Encke's3.314.100.34212 541885.2 ?????????????????????
Solar telegraph, telegraph for signaling by flashes of
Solar time. See Apparent time, under Time.
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Sun \Sun\, n. [OE. sunne, sonne, AS. sunne; akin to OFries.
sunne, D. zon, OS. & OHG. sunna, G. sonne, Icel. sunna, Goth.
sunna; perh. fr. same root as L. sol. [root]297. Cf. Solar,
1. The luminous orb, the light of which constitutes day, and
its absence night; the central body round which the earth
and planets revolve, by which they are held in their
orbits, and from which they receive light and heat. Its
mean distance from the earth is about 92,500,000 miles,
and its diameter about 860,000.
Note: Its mean apparent diameter as seen from the earth is
32' 4[sec], and it revolves on its own axis once in
251/3 days. Its mean density is about one fourth of
that of the earth, or 1.41, that of water being unity.
Its luminous surface is called the photosphere, above
which is an envelope consisting partly of hydrogen,
called the chromosphere, which can be seen only through
the spectroscope, or at the time of a total solar
eclipse. Above the chromosphere, and sometimes
extending out millions of miles, are luminous rays or
streams of light which are visible only at the time of
a total eclipse, forming the solar corona.
2. Any heavenly body which forms the center of a system of
3. The direct light or warmth of the sun; sunshine.
Lambs that did frisk in the sun. --Shak.
4. That which resembles the sun, as in splendor or
importance; any source of light, warmth, or animation.
For the Lord God is a sun and shield. --Ps. lxxiv.
I will never consent to put out the sun of
sovereignity to posterity. --Eikon
Sun and planet wheels (Mach.), an ingenious contrivance for
converting reciprocating motion, as that of the working
beam of a steam engine, into rotatory motion. It consists
of a toothed wheel (called the sun wheel), firmly secured
to the shaft it is desired to drive, and another wheel
(called the planet wheel) secured to the end of a
connecting rod. By the motion of the connecting rod, the
planet wheel is made to circulate round the central wheel
on the shaft, communicating to this latter a velocity of
revolution the double of its own. --G. Francis.
Sun angel (Zool.), a South American humming bird of the
genus Heliangelos, noted for its beautiful colors and
the brilliant luster of the feathers of its throat.
Sun animalcute. (Zool.) See Heliozoa.
Sun bath (Med.), exposure of a patient to the sun's rays;
Sun bear (Zool.), a species of bear (Helarctos Malayanus)
native of Southern Asia and Borneo. It has a small head
and short neck, and fine short glossy fur, mostly black,
but brownish on the nose. It is easily tamed. Called also
bruang, and Malayan bear.
Sun beetle (Zool.), any small lustrous beetle of the genus
Sun bittern (Zool.), a singular South American bird
(Eurypyga helias), in some respects related both to the
rails and herons. It is beautifully variegated with white,
brown, and black. Called also sunbird, and tiger
Sun fever (Med.), the condition of fever produced by sun
Sun gem (Zool.), a Brazilian humming bird (Heliactin
cornutus). Its head is ornamented by two tufts of bright
colored feathers, fiery crimson at the base and greenish
yellow at the tip. Called also Horned hummer.
Sun grebe (Zool.), the finfoot.
Sun picture, a picture taken by the agency of the sun's
rays; a photograph.
Sun spots (Astron.), dark spots that appear on the sun's
disk, consisting commonly of a black central portion with
a surrounding border of lighter shade, and usually seen
only by the telescope, but sometimes by the naked eye.
They are very changeable in their figure and dimensions,
and vary in size from mere apparent points to spaces of
50,000 miles in diameter. The term sun spots is often used
to include bright spaces (called faculae) as well as dark
spaces (called maculae). Called also solar spots. See
Illustration in Appendix.
Sun star (Zool.), any one of several species of starfishes
belonging to Solaster, Crossaster, and allied genera,
having numerous rays.
Sun trout (Zool.), the squeteague.
Sun wheel. (Mach.) See Sun and planet wheels, above.
Under the sun, in the world; on earth. "There is no new
thing under the sun." --Eccl. i. 9.
Note: Sun is often used in the formation of compound
adjectives of obvious meaning; as, sun-bright,
sun-dried, sun-gilt, sunlike, sun-lit, sun-scorched,
and the like.