Search Result for "romania": 
Wordnet 3.0

NOUN (1)

1. a republic in southeastern Europe with a short coastline on the Black Sea;
[syn: Romania, Roumania, Rumania]

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):

Romania n 1: a republic in southeastern Europe with a short coastline on the Black Sea [syn: Romania, Roumania, Rumania]
CIA World Factbook 2002:

Romania Introduction Romania -------------------- Background: Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a Communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power by a fractious coalition of center-right parties. Currently, the Party of Social Democracy forms a nominally minority government, which governs with the support of the opposition Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the EU. Geography Romania ----------------- Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 25 00 E Map references: Europe Area: total: 237,500 sq km land: 230,340 sq km water: 7,160 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Oregon Land boundaries: total: 2,508 km border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Yugoslavia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km Coastline: 225 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 NM Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps Elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m Natural resources: petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower Land use: arable land: 40.57% permanent crops: 2.4% other: 57.03% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 28,800 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides Environment - current issues: soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic agreements: Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol Geography - note: controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine People Romania -------------- Population: 22,317,730 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.4% (male 1,992,505; female 1,898,122) 15-64 years: 68.8% (male 7,618,801; female 7,726,300) 65 years and over: 13.8% (male 1,274,881; female 1,807,121) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: -0.21% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 10.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 12.27 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/ female total population: 0.95 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 18.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.39 years female: 74.39 years (2002 est.) male: 66.62 years Total fertility rate: 1.35 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.02% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 7,000 (1999 est.) AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: 350 (1999 est.) Nationality: noun: Romanian(s) adjective: Romanian Ethnic groups: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 7.1%, Roma 1.8%, German 0.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, other 0.8% (1992) Religions: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6%, Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18% Languages: Romanian, Hungarian, German Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97% male: 98% female: 95% (1992 est.) Government Romania ------------------ Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Romania local short form: Romania local long form: none Government type: republic Capital: Bucharest Administrative divisions: 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras- Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea Independence: 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from Turkey; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March 1881; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947) National holiday: Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918) Constitution: 8 December 1991 Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000) elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 November 2000, with runoff between the top two candidates held 10 December 2000 (next to be held NA November/ December 2004); prime minister appointed by the president head of government: Prime Minister Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister election results: percent of vote - Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim TUDOR 33.16% Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (140 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (345 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) elections: Senate - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDSR 37.1%, PRM 21.0%, PD 7.6%, PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%; seats by party - PDSR 65, PRM 37, PD 13, PNL 13, UDMR 12; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PDSR 36.6%, PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%, PNL, 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party - PDSR 155, PRM 84, PD 31, PNL 30, UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18 Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates) Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or PD [Traian BASESCU]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Valeriu STOICA]; Party of Social Democracy or PSD [Adrian NASTASE]; note - used to be known as the Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR] Political pressure groups and various human rights and leaders: professional associations International organization ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, participation: CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sorin Dumitru DUCARU consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748 telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851 chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Michael US: GUEST embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch) telephone: [40] (1) 210 40 42 FAX: [40] (1) 210 03 95 branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca Flag description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova Economy Romania --------------- Economy - overview: Romania, one of the poorest countries of Central and Eastern Europe, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Over the past decade economic restructuring has lagged behind most other countries in the region. Consequently, living standards have continued to fall - real wages are down perhaps 40%. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets, and despite the global slowdown in 2001, strong domestic activity in construction, agriculture, and consumption led to 4.8% growth. A standby agreement with the IMF - covering the period October 2001 to March 2003 - provides a key opportunity for vigorous privatization, regulatory reform, deficit reduction, and the curbing of inflation. The government in the past has not been able to fully implement IMF agreements; its degree of success in this case will affect prospects for joining the EU. GDP: purchasing power parity - $152.7 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $6,800 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15% industry: 30% services: 55% (2000) Population below poverty line: 44.5% (2000) Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 3.7% percentage share: highest 10%: 22.7% (1994) Distribution of family income - Gini 30.5 (1997) index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 34.5% (2001 est.) Labor force: 9.9 million (1999 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry 25%, services 35% (1998) Unemployment rate: 9.1% (2001) Budget: revenues: $11.7 billion expenditures: $12.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.) Industries: textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (2001) Electricity - production: 49.787 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 52.58% hydro: 36.92% other: 0.01% (2000) nuclear: 10.49% Electricity - consumption: 45.677 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 1.4 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 775 million kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Exports - commodities: textiles and footwear 26%, metals and metal products 15%, machinery and equipment 11%, minerals and fuels 6% (1999) Exports - partners: Italy 22%, Germany 16%, France 7%, Turkey 6%, US (2000) Imports: $14.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment 23%, fuels and minerals 12%, chemicals 9%, textile and products 19% (1999) Imports - partners: Italy 19%, Germany 15%, Russia 9%, France 6% (2000) Debt - external: $11.6 billion (2001 est.) Currency: leu (ROL) Currency code: ROL Exchange rates: lei per US dollar - 35,052.0 (January 2002), 29,060.8 (2001), 21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999), 8,875.6 (1998), 7,167.9 (1997); note - lei is the plural form of leu Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Romania ---------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 3.777 million (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 645,500 (1999) Telephone system: general assessment: poor domestic service, but improving domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one- third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999) Radio broadcast stations: AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998) Radios: 7.2 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995) Televisions: 5.25 million (1997) Internet country code: .ro Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 38 (2000) Internet users: 800,000 (2001) Transportation Romania ---------------------- Railways: total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified) standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435- m gauge narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2001) broad gage: 60 km 1.524-m gauge Highways: total: 153,359 km paved: 103,671 km (including 133 km of expressways) unpaved: 49,688 km (1998 est.) Waterways: 1,724 km (1984) Pipelines: crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992) Ports and harbors: Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea Merchant marine: total: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 561,470 GRT/754,836 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Italy 5 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 47, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 4 Airports: 61 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 24 over 3,047 m: 4 2,438 to 3,047 m: 9 1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 37 under 914 m: 23 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 12 Heliports: 2 (2001) Military Romania ---------------- Military branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (AMR), Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense, Border Guards Military manpower - military age: 20 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 5,906,601 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 4,970,496 (2002 service: est.) Military manpower - reaching military males: 179,951 (2002 est.) age annually: Military expenditures - dollar $985 million (2002) figure: Military expenditures - percent of 2.47% (2002) GDP: Transnational Issues Romania ---------------------------- Disputes - international: Romania and Ukraine have yet to resolve claims over Ukrainian- administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and delimitation of Black Sea maritime boundary, despite 1997 bilateral treaty to find a solution in two years and numerous talks; because of a shift in the Danube course since the last correction of the boundary in 1920, a joint Bulgarian-Romanian team will recommend sovereignty changes to several islands and redefine the boundary Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe