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Wordnet 3.0

NOUN (1)

1. a republic in western South America; achieved independence from Spain in 1821; was the heart of the Inca empire from the 12th to 16th centuries;
[syn: Peru, Republic of Peru]


WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):

Peru n 1: a republic in western South America; achieved independence from Spain in 1821; was the heart of the Inca empire from the 12th to 16th centuries [syn: Peru, Republic of Peru]
CIA World Factbook 2002:

Peru Introduction Peru ----------------- Background: Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadores in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term in the spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress in November of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government. Geography Peru -------------- Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W Map references: South America Area: total: 1,285,220 sq km water: 5,220 sq km land: 1.28 million sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska Land boundaries: total: 5,536 km border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km Coastline: 2,414 km Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200 NM territorial sea: 200 NM Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva) Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas Land use: arable land: 2.85% permanent crops: 0.38% other: 96.77% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 11,950 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity Environment - current issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes Environment - international party to: Antarctic-Environmental agreements: Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Geography - note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; remote Lake McIntyre is the ultimate source of the Amazon River People Peru ----------- Population: 27,949,639 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 34% (male 4,820,892; female 4,671,205) 15-64 years: 61.1% (male 8,598,328; female 8,492,830) 65 years and over: 4.9% (male 627,601; female 738,783) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 1.66% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 23.36 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/ female total population: 1.01 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 38.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.59 years female: 73.12 years (2002 est.) male: 68.18 years Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.35% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 48,000 (1999 est.) AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,100 (1999 est.) Nationality: noun: Peruvian(s) adjective: Peruvian Ethnic groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3% Religions: Roman Catholic 90% Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 88.3% male: 94.5% female: 83% (1995 est.) Government Peru --------------- Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Peru conventional short form: Peru local long form: Republica del Peru local short form: Peru Government type: constitutional republic Capital: Lima Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain) National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821) Constitution: 31 December 1993 Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001) head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001) note: Prime Minister Roberto DANINO (since 28 July 2001) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 April 2001, with runoff election held 3 June 2001; next to be held 9 April 2006 election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9% cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president Legislative branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congresso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17 elections: last held 8 April 2001 (next to be held 9 April 2006) Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary) Political parties and leaders: American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia] Political pressure groups and leftist guerrilla groups include leaders: Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at- large)] International organization ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, participation: G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Allan WAGNER chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036 consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington (DC) FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124 telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador John R. US: HAMILTON embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33 mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000 telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000 FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037 Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath Economy Peru ------------ Economy - overview: Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the government and the IMF and World Bank, growth was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis in Asia, and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year for Peru, with the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited growth in 2000. The downturn in the global economy further depressed growth in 2001. President TOLEDO, who assumed the presidency in July 2001, is working to reinvigorate the economy and reduce unemployment. Economic growth in 2002 is projected to be 3 to 3.5%. GDP: purchasing power parity - $132 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: -0.3% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 10% industry: 35% services: 55% (2001 est.) Population below poverty line: 50% (2000 est.) Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.6% percentage share: highest 10%: 35.4% (1996) Distribution of family income - Gini 46.2 (1996) index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2001 est.) Labor force: 7.5 million (2000 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services Unemployment rate: 9%; widespread underemployment (2001 est.) Budget: revenues: $10.4 billion expenditures: $10.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.) Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication Industrial production growth rate: 1.5% (2001 est.) Electricity - production: 19.679 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 17.89% hydro: 81.38% other: 0.73% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 18.301 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish Exports: $7.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Exports - commodities: fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton Exports - partners: US 28%, UK 8%, Switzerland 8%, China 6%, Japan, Chile, Brazil (2000) Imports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals Imports - partners: US 27%, Chile 8%, Spain 6%, Venezuela 4%, Colombia, Brazil, Japan (2000) Debt - external: $33.1 billion (2001 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $895.1 million (1995) Currency: nuevo sol (PEN) Currency code: PEN Exchange rates: nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4400 (November 2001), 3.509 (2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.3833 (1999), 2.9300 (1998), 2.6642 (1997) Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Peru ------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 1.509 million (1998) Telephones - mobile cellular: 504,995 (1998) Telephone system: general assessment: adequate for most requirements domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable Radio broadcast stations: AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999) Radios: 6.65 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997) Televisions: 3.06 million (1997) Internet country code: .pe Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 10 (2000) Internet users: 400,000 (2000) Transportation Peru ------------------- Railways: total: 2,102 km standard gauge: 1,695 km 1.435- m gauge narrow gauge: 407 km 0.914-m gauge (2001) Highways: total: 72,900 km paved: 8,700 km unpaved: 64,200 km (1999 est.) Waterways: 8,808 km note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries Merchant marine: total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,470 GRT/45,451 DWT note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: United States 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1 Airports: 239 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 47 over 3,047 m: 5 2,438 to 3,047 m: 20 1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 8 under 914 m: 1 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 192 1,524 to 2,437 m: 25 914 to 1,523 m: 65 under 914 m: 102 (2001) Military Peru ------------- Military branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP), National Police (includes General Police, Security Police, and Technical Police) Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 7,356,395 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 4,944,952 (2002 service: est.) Military manpower - reaching males: 276,458 (2002 est.) military age annually: Military expenditures - dollar $1 billion (FY01) figure: Military expenditures - percent of 1.8% (FY01) GDP: Transnational Issues Peru ------------------------- Disputes - international: dispute with Chile over the economic zone delimited by the maritime boundary; Colombian drug activities penetrate Peruvian border area Illicit drugs: until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; emerging opium producer; Peru reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 64% to 34,000 hectares between 1996 and the end of 2001; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Peru, NE -- U.S. city in Nebraska Population (2000): 569 Housing Units (2000): 290 Land area (2000): 0.536523 sq. miles (1.389589 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.536523 sq. miles (1.389589 sq. km) FIPS code: 38960 Located within: Nebraska (NE), FIPS 31 Location: 40.480055 N, 95.731286 W ZIP Codes (1990): 68421 Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Peru, NE Peru
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Peru, NY -- U.S. Census Designated Place in New York Population (2000): 1514 Housing Units (2000): 558 Land area (2000): 1.602415 sq. miles (4.150236 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.602415 sq. miles (4.150236 sq. km) FIPS code: 57364 Located within: New York (NY), FIPS 36 Location: 44.579556 N, 73.530539 W ZIP Codes (1990): 12972 Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Peru, NY Peru
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Peru, IL -- U.S. city in Illinois Population (2000): 9835 Housing Units (2000): 4413 Land area (2000): 5.940897 sq. miles (15.386853 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.108039 sq. miles (0.279821 sq. km) Total area (2000): 6.048936 sq. miles (15.666674 sq. km) FIPS code: 59234 Located within: Illinois (IL), FIPS 17 Location: 41.334458 N, 89.127385 W ZIP Codes (1990): 61354 Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Peru, IL Peru
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Peru, IN -- U.S. city in Indiana Population (2000): 12994 Housing Units (2000): 5943 Land area (2000): 4.615116 sq. miles (11.953094 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.043069 sq. miles (0.111547 sq. km) Total area (2000): 4.658185 sq. miles (12.064641 sq. km) FIPS code: 59328 Located within: Indiana (IN), FIPS 18 Location: 40.757690 N, 86.067791 W ZIP Codes (1990): 46970 Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Peru, IN Peru
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Peru, KS -- U.S. city in Kansas Population (2000): 183 Housing Units (2000): 101 Land area (2000): 0.377059 sq. miles (0.976578 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.377059 sq. miles (0.976578 sq. km) FIPS code: 55525 Located within: Kansas (KS), FIPS 20 Location: 37.081299 N, 96.096277 W ZIP Codes (1990): 67360 Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Peru, KS Peru