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Wordnet 3.0

NOUN (2)

1. a republic on the Isthmus of Panama; achieved independence from Colombia in 1903;
[syn: Panama, Republic of Panama]

2. a stiff hat made of straw with a flat crown;
[syn: boater, leghorn, Panama, Panama hat, sailor, skimmer, straw hat]

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):

Panama n 1: a republic on the Isthmus of Panama; achieved independence from Colombia in 1903 [syn: Panama, Republic of Panama] 2: a stiff hat made of straw with a flat crown [syn: boater, leghorn, Panama, Panama hat, sailor, skimmer, straw hat]
CIA World Factbook 2002:

Panama Introduction Panama ------------------- Background: With US backing, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903 and promptly signed a treaty with the US allowing for the construction of a canal and US sovereignty over a strip of land on either side of the structure (the Panama Canal Zone). The Panama Canal was built by the US Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914. On 7 September 1977, an agreement was signed for the complete transfer of the Canal from the US to Panama by the end of 1999. Certain portions of the Zone and increasing responsibility over the Canal were turned over in the intervening years. With US help, dictator Manuel NORIEGA was deposed in 1989. The entire Panama Canal, the area supporting the Canal, and remaining US military bases were turned over to Panama by or on 31 December 1999. Geography Panama ---------------- Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 80 00 W Map references: Central America and the Caribbean Area: total: 78,200 sq km water: 2,210 sq km land: 75,990 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Carolina Land boundaries: total: 555 km border countries: Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km Coastline: 2,490 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM Climate: tropical maritime; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May to January), short dry season (January to May) Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Volcan de Chiriqui 3,475 m Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp, hydropower Land use: arable land: 6.72% permanent crops: 2.08% other: 91.2% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 320 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: occasional severe storms and forest fires in the Darien area Environment - current issues: water pollution from agricultural runoff threatens fishery resources; deforestation of tropical rain forest; land degradation and soil erosion threatens siltation of Panama Canal; air pollution in urban areas; mining threatens natural resources Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate agreements: Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation Geography - note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean People Panama ------------- Population: 2,882,329 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 29.6% (male 433,494; female 418,120) 15-64 years: 64.3% (male 939,550; female 914,646) 65 years and over: 6.1% (male 84,130; female 92,389) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 1.26% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 18.6 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 4.96 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: -1.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/ female total population: 1.02 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 19.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.89 years female: 78.74 years (2002 est.) male: 73.14 years Total fertility rate: 2.22 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.54% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 24,000 (1999 est.) AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,200 (1999 est.) Nationality: noun: Panamanian(s) adjective: Panamanian Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 70%, Amerindian and mixed (West Indian) 14%, white 10%, Amerindian 6% Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 15% Languages: Spanish (official), English 14% note: many Panamanians bilingual Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 90.8% male: 91.4% female: 90.2% (1995 est.) Government Panama ----------------- Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Panama conventional short form: Panama local short form: Panama local long form: Republica de Panama Government type: constitutional democracy Capital: Panama Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, and Veraguas Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821) National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903) Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted 1978, 1983 and 1994 Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Executive branch: chief of state: President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1 September 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1 September 1999); Second Vice President Dominador "Kaiser" Baldonero BAZAN Jimenez (since 1 September 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (since 1 September 1999); First Vice President Arturo Ulises VALLARINO (since 1 September 1999); Second Vice President Dominador "Kaiser" Baldonero BAZAN Jimenez (since 1 September 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 2 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2004) note: government coalition - PA, MOLIRENA, Democratic Change, MORENA, PLN, PS election results: Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez elected president; percent of vote - Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez (PA) 44%, Martin TORRIJOS (PRD) 37% Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (71 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PRD 34, PA 18, PDC 5, PS 4, MOLIRENA 3, PLN 3, Democratic Change 2, PRC 1, MORENA 1 note: legislators from outlying rural districts are chosen on a plurality basis while districts located in more populous towns and cities elect multiple legislators by means of a proportion-based formula elections: last held 2 May 1999 (next to be held NA May 2004) Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (nine judges appointed for 10-year terms); five superior courts; three courts of appeal Political parties and leaders: Arnulfista Party or PA [Mireya Elisa MOSCOSO Rodriguez]; Civic Renewal Party or PRC [Serguei DE LA ROSA]; Democratic Change [Ricardo MARTINELLI]; Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Martin TORRIJOS]; National Liberal Party or PLN [Raul ARANGO Gasteazopo]; National Renovation Movement or MORENA [Pedro VALLARINO Cox]; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Ramon MORALES]; Popular Party or PP (formerly Christian Democratic Party or PDC) [Ruben AROSEMENA]; Solidarity Party or PS [Samuel LEWIS Galindo] Political pressure groups and Chamber of Commerce; National Civic leaders: Crusade; National Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers (SUNTRACS); National Council of Private Enterprise or CONEP; Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE; Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the Republic of Panama or CTRP International organization CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, participation: IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Guillermo "Billy" FORD FAX: [1] (202) 483-8416 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Tampa telephone: [1] (202) 483-1407 chancery: 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington, DC 20008 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador US: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Frederick A. BECKER embassy: Avenida Balboa and Calle 37, Apartado Postal 6959, Panama City 5 mailing address: American Embassy Panama, Unit 0945, APO AA 34002 telephone: [507] 207-7000 FAX: [507] 227-1964 Flag description: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white (hoist side) with a blue five-pointed star in the center and plain red; the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed star in the center Economy Panama -------------- Economy - overview: Panama's economy is based primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts for three-fourths of GDP. Services include the Panama Canal, banking, the Colon Free Zone, insurance, container ports, flagship registry, and tourism. A slump in Colon Free Zone and agricultural exports, the global slowdown, and the withdrawal of US military forces held back economic growth in 2000- 01. The government plans public works programs, tax reforms, and new regional trade agreements in order to stimulate growth. GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.9 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $5,900 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 7% industry: 17% services: 76% (2000 est.) Population below poverty line: 37% (1999 est.) Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.2% percentage share: highest 10%: 35.7% (1997) Distribution of family income - Gini 48.5 (1997) index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (2000 est.) Labor force: 1.1 million (2000 est.) note: shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 20.8%, industry 18%, services 61.2% (1995 est.) Unemployment rate: 13% (2000 est.) Budget: revenues: $1.9 billion expenditures: $2 billion, including capital expenditures of $471 million (2000 est.) Industries: construction, petroleum refining, brewing, cement and other construction materials, sugar milling Industrial production growth rate: 2% (2000 est.) Electricity - production: 4.894 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 29.49% hydro: 69.11% other: 1.4% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 4.651 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 20 million kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 120 million kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane, vegetables; livestock; shrimp Exports: $5.9 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Exports - commodities: bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, clothing Exports - partners: US 45.9%, Sweden 8.1%, Benelux 5.3%, Costa Rica 5.1% (2000 est.) Imports: $6.7 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Imports - commodities: capital goods, crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, chemicals Imports - partners: US 33.1%, Ecuador 7.2%, Venezuela 6.6%, Japan 5.5% (2000 est.) Debt - external: $7.6 billion (2001 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $197.1 million (1995) Currency: balboa (PAB); US dollar (USD) Currency code: PAB; USD Exchange rates: balboas per US dollar - 1.000 (fixed rate) Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Panama --------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 396,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: 17,000 (1997) Telephone system: general assessment: domestic and international facilities well developed domestic: NA international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System Radio broadcast stations: AM 101, FM 134, shortwave 0 (1998) Radios: 815,000 (1997) Television broadcast stations: 38 (including repeaters) (1998) Televisions: 510,000 (1997) Internet country code: .pa Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000) Internet users: 45,000 (2000) Transportation Panama --------------------- Railways: total: 355 km broad gauge: 76 km 1.524-m gauge narrow gauge: 279 km 0.914-m gauge (2001) Highways: total: 11,592 km paved: 4,079 km (including 30 km of expressways) unpaved: 7,513 km (2000) Waterways: 882 km note: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama Canal Pipelines: crude oil 130 km (2001) Ports and harbors: Balboa, Cristobal, Coco Solo, Manzanillo (part of Colon area), Vacamonte Merchant marine: total: 4,838 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 118,878,358 GRT/ 180,588,102 DWT ships by type: bulk 1,445, cargo 907, chemical tanker 337, combination bulk 73, combination ore/oil 18, container 560, liquefied gas 207, livestock carrier 5, multi- functional large-load carrier 12, passenger 38, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 542, railcar carrier 2, refrigerated cargo 283, roll on/roll off 104, short-sea passenger 38, specialized tanker 34, vehicle carrier 230 note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Albania 2, Angola 1, Antigua and Barbuda 1, Argentina 11, Australia 13, Austria 2, Bahamas, The 5, Belgium 2, Belize 6, Brazil 6, British Virgin Islands 8, Cambodia 1, Canada 9, Chile 12, China 259, Colombia 14, Croatia 2, Cuba 20, Cyprus 3, Denmark 3, Dominican Republic 1, Ecuador 3, Egypt 16, Equatorial Guinea 1, France 9, Germany 72, Greece 523, Haiti 1, Honduras 3, Hong Kong 299, Iceland 1, India 18, Indonesia 48, Ireland 1, Israel 5, Italy 9, Japan 1642, Kenya 1, Kuwait 2, Latvia 8, Liberia 5, Lithuania 1, Malaysia 18, Malta 2, Marshall Islands 1, Mexico 8, Monaco 112, Netherlands 19, Netherlands Antilles 1, Nigeria 3, Norway 98, Paraguay 1, Peru 15, Philippines 49, Poland 5, Portugal 7, Puerto Rico 2, Romania 7, Russia 12, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Saudi Arabia 4, Seychelles 1, Singapore 112, South Africa 3, South Korea 342, Spain 52, Sri Lanka 3, Sudan 1, Sweden 2, Switzerland 81, Taiwan 334, Thailand 14, Trinidad and Tobago 1, Tunisia 1, Turkey 4, Ukraine 1, United Arab Emirates 54, United Kingdom 73, United States 115, Venezuela 6, Virgin Islands (UK) 8 (2002 est.) Airports: 107 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 42 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 914 to 1,523 m: 14 under 914 m: 21 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 65 914 to 1,523 m: 12 under 914 m: 53 (2001) Military Panama --------------- Military branches: an amendment to the Constitution abolished the armed forces, but there are security forces (Panamanian Public Forces or PPF includes the Panamanian National Police, National Maritime Service, and National Air Service) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 789,973 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 540,052 (2002 est.) service: Military expenditures - dollar $128 million (FY99) figure: Military expenditures - percent of 1.3% (FY99) GDP: Military - note: on 10 February 1990, the government of then President ENDARA abolished Panama's military and reformed the security apparatus by creating the Panamanian Public Forces; in October 1994, Panama's Legislative Assembly approved a constitutional amendment prohibiting the creation of a standing military force, but allowing the temporary establishment of special police units to counter acts of "external aggression" Transnational Issues Panama --------------------------- Disputes - international: none Illicit drugs: major cocaine transshipment point and major drug money-laundering center; no recent signs of coca cultivation; monitoring of financial transactions is improving; official corruption remains a major problem
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Panama, NE -- U.S. village in Nebraska Population (2000): 253 Housing Units (2000): 101 Land area (2000): 0.268239 sq. miles (0.694736 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.268239 sq. miles (0.694736 sq. km) FIPS code: 38225 Located within: Nebraska (NE), FIPS 31 Location: 40.597640 N, 96.510599 W ZIP Codes (1990): Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Panama, NE Panama
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Panama, NY -- U.S. village in New York Population (2000): 491 Housing Units (2000): 208 Land area (2000): 2.168354 sq. miles (5.616012 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.024152 sq. miles (0.062553 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.192506 sq. miles (5.678565 sq. km) FIPS code: 56231 Located within: New York (NY), FIPS 36 Location: 42.075487 N, 79.486511 W ZIP Codes (1990): 14767 Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Panama, NY Panama
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Panama, OK -- U.S. town in Oklahoma Population (2000): 1362 Housing Units (2000): 626 Land area (2000): 1.508248 sq. miles (3.906343 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.011023 sq. miles (0.028549 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.519271 sq. miles (3.934892 sq. km) FIPS code: 56900 Located within: Oklahoma (OK), FIPS 40 Location: 35.170591 N, 94.670099 W ZIP Codes (1990): Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Panama, OK Panama
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Panama, IL -- U.S. village in Illinois Population (2000): 323 Housing Units (2000): 174 Land area (2000): 0.337071 sq. miles (0.873010 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000953 sq. miles (0.002469 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.338024 sq. miles (0.875479 sq. km) FIPS code: 57498 Located within: Illinois (IL), FIPS 17 Location: 39.030451 N, 89.523548 W ZIP Codes (1990): Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Panama, IL Panama
U.S. Gazetteer Places (2000):

Panama, IA -- U.S. city in Iowa Population (2000): 212 Housing Units (2000): 105 Land area (2000): 0.284575 sq. miles (0.737047 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.284575 sq. miles (0.737047 sq. km) FIPS code: 61275 Located within: Iowa (IA), FIPS 19 Location: 41.726691 N, 95.474235 W ZIP Codes (1990): 51562 Note: some ZIP codes may be omitted esp. for suburbs. Headwords: Panama, IA Panama