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Wordnet 3.0

NOUN (2)

1. a landlocked socialist republic in central Asia;
[syn: Mongolia, Mongolian People's Republic, Outer Mongolia]

2. a vast region in Asia including the Mongolian People's Republic and China's Inner Mongolia;

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):

Mongolia n 1: a landlocked socialist republic in central Asia [syn: Mongolia, Mongolian People's Republic, Outer Mongolia] 2: a vast region in Asia including the Mongolian People's Republic and China's Inner Mongolia
CIA World Factbook 2002:

Mongolia Introduction Mongolia --------------------- Background: The Mongols entered history in the 13th century when under GENGHIS KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP in a national election in 1996. Over the next four years the DUC put forward a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and democratize the political system. However, the former Communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional restructuring and made implementation difficult. In 2000, the MPRP won an overwhelming victory in the legislature - with 72 of the 76 seats - and completely reshuffled the government. While it continues many of the reform policies, the MPRP is focusing on social welfare and public order priorities. Geography Mongolia ------------------ Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E Map references: Asia Area: total: 1.565 million sq km water: 9,600 sq km land: 1,555,400 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska Land boundaries: total: 8,162 km border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,485 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none (landlocked) Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges) Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south- central Elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate Land use: arable land: 0.84% permanent crops: 0% other: 99.16% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 840 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud", which is harsh winter conditions Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; policies of the former Communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate agreements: Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia People Mongolia --------------- Population: 2,694,432 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 32% (male 438,176; female 422,960) 15-64 years: 64.1% (male 864,033; female 865,172) 65 years and over: 3.9% (male 45,080; female 59,011) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 1.48% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 21.8 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 7.01 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/ female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 51.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.62 years female: 66.87 years (2002 est.) male: 62.47 years Total fertility rate: 2.37 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ less than 100 (1999 est.) AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA Nationality: noun: Mongolian(s) adjective: Mongolian Ethnic groups: Mongol (predominantly Khalkha) 85%, Turkic (of which Kazakh is the largest group) 7%, Tungusic 4.6%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 3.4% (1998) Religions: Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism 96%, Muslim (primarily in the southwest), Shamanism, and Christian 4% (1998) Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999) Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.8% male: 98% female: 97.5% (2000) Government Mongolia ------------------- Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Mongolia local short form: Mongol Uls former: Outer Mongolia local long form: none Government type: parliamentary Capital: Ulaanbaatar Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi- Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs Independence: 11 July 1921 (from China) National holiday: Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921) Constitution: 12 February 1992 Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, Turkish, and Western systems of law that combines aspects of a parliamentary system with some aspects of a presidential system; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (since 20 June 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 26 July 2000) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural in consultation with the president elections: president nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four- year term; election last held 20 May 2001 (next to be held NA May 2005); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the State Great Hural; election last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: Natsagiyn BAGABANDI reelected president; percent of vote - Natsagiyn BAGABANDI (MPRP) 58.13%, Radnaasumbereliyn GONCHIGDORJ (DP) 36.58%, Luvsandamba DASHNYAM (CWP) 3.54%, other 1.75%; Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected prime minister by a vote in the State Great Hural of 68 to 3 Legislative branch: unicameral State Great Hural (76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 2 July 2000 (next to be held NA July 2004) election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - MPRP 72, other 4 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval by the president) Political parties and leaders: Citizens' Will Party or CWP (also called Civil Will Party or Civil Courage Party) [Sanjaasurengyn OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [D. DORLIGJAN]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or MNSDP [B. ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [B. JARGALSAIHAN] note: the MPRP is the ruling party Political pressure groups and NA leaders: International organization ARF (dialogue partner), AsDB, ASEAN participation: (observer), CCC, CP (provisional), EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007 consulate(s) general: New York FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227 telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador John US: DINGER embassy: inner northeast part of the Big Ring Road, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar mailing address: United States Embassy in Mongolia, P. O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002 telephone: [976] (11) 329095 FAX: [976] (11) 320776 Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol) Economy Mongolia ---------------- Economy - overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and breeding of livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990-91, at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. Mongolia was driven into deep recession, prolonged by the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party's (MPRP) reluctance to undertake serious economic reform. The Democratic Coalition (DC) government has embraced free-market economics, easing price controls, liberalizing domestic and international trade, and attempting to restructure the banking system and the energy sector. Major domestic privatization programs were undertaken, as well as the fostering of foreign investment through international tender of the oil distribution company, a leading cashmere company, and banks. Reform was held back by the ex-Communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DC. Economic growth picked up in 1997-99 after stalling in 1996 due to a series of natural disasters and declines in world prices of copper and cashmere. In August and September 1999, the economy suffered from a temporary Russian ban on exports of oil and oil products, and Mongolia remains vulnerable in this sector. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in 1997. The international donor community pledged over $300 million per year at the last Consultative Group Meeting, held in Ulaanbaatar in June 1999. The MPRP government, elected in July 2000, is anxious to improve the investment climate; it must also deal with a heavy burden of external debt. Falling prices for Mongolia's mainly primary sector exports, widespread opposition to privatization, and adverse effects of weather on agriculture in early 2000 and 2001 restrained real GDP growth in 2000-01. GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,770 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 32% industry: 30% services: 38% (2000 est.) Population below poverty line: 36% (2001 est.) Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.9% percentage share: highest 10%: 24.5% (1995) Distribution of family income - Gini 33.2 (1995) index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.8% (2000 est.) Labor force: 1.4 million (2000) Labor force - by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural Unemployment rate: 20% (2000) Budget: revenues: $262 million expenditures: $328 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.) Industries: construction materials, mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages, processing of animal products Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (2000 est.) Electricity - production: 2.77 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 2.732 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 25 million kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 181 million kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses Exports: $466.1 million (f.o.b., 2000) Exports - commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals Exports - partners: China 59%, US 20%, Russia 10%, Japan 2% (2000) Imports: $614.5 million (c.i.f., 2000) Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea Imports - partners: Russia 34%, China 21%, Japan 12%, South Korea 9%, US 4% (2000) Debt - external: $760 million (2000 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $208.7 million (1999 est.) Currency: togrog/tugrik (MNT) Currency code: MNT Exchange rates: togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,101.29 (December 2001), 1,097.70 (2001), 1,076.67 (2000), 1,072.37 (1999), 840.83 (1998), 789.99 (1997) Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Mongolia ----------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 104,100 (1999) Telephones - mobile cellular: 110,000 (2001) Telephone system: general assessment: very low density: about 3.5 telephones for each thousand persons domestic: NA international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region) Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 9, shortwave 4 (2001) Radios: 155,900 (1999) Television broadcast stations: 4 (plus 18 provincial repeaters and many low powered repeaters) (1999) Televisions: 168,800 (1999) Internet country code: .mn Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 5 (2001) Internet users: 30,000 (2001) Transportation Mongolia ----------------------- Railways: 1,815 km broad gauge: 1,815 km 1.524-m gauge (2001) Highways: total: 3,387 km paved: 1,563 km note: there are also 45,862 km of rural roads that consist of rough, unimproved, cross-country tracks (2000) unpaved: 1,824 km Waterways: 400 km (1999) Ports and harbors: none Airports: 34 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 8 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 under 914 m: 1 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 26 over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 5 (2001) Military Mongolia ----------------- Military branches: Mongolian Armed Forces (includes General Purpose Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense Troops); note - Border Troops are under Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs in peacetime Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 772,619 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 501,493 (2002 est.) service: Military manpower - reaching males: 30,230 (2002 est.) military age annually: Military expenditures - dollar $24.3 million (FY01) figure: Military expenditures - percent of 2.5% (FY01) GDP: Transnational Issues Mongolia ----------------------------- Disputes - international: none