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Wordnet 3.0

NOUN (2)

1. a republic (under United States protection) on the Marshall Islands;
[syn: Marshall Islands, Republic of the Marshall Islands]

2. a group of coral islands in eastern Micronesia;

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):

Marshall Islands n 1: a republic (under United States protection) on the Marshall Islands [syn: Marshall Islands, Republic of the Marshall Islands] 2: a group of coral islands in eastern Micronesia
CIA World Factbook 2002:

Marshall Islands Introduction Marshall Islands ----------------------------- Background: After almost four decades under US administration as the easternmost part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Marshall Islands attained independence in 1986 under a Compact of Free Association. Compensation claims continue as a result of US nuclear testing on some of the atolls between 1947 and 1962. The Marshall Islands have been home to the US Army Base Kwajalein (USAKA) since 1964. Geography Marshall Islands -------------------------- Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia Geographic coordinates: 9 00 N, 168 00 E Map references: Oceania Area: total: 181.3 sq km note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, Kwajalein, Majuro, Rongelap, and Utirik water: 0 sq km land: 181.3 sq km Area - comparative: about the size of Washington, DC Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 370.4 km Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 NM territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM Climate: wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m Natural resources: coconut products, marine products, deep seabed minerals Land use: arable land: 16.67% permanent crops: 0% other: 83.33% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 0 sq km Natural hazards: infrequent typhoons Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; pollution of Majuro lagoon from household waste and discharges from fishing vessels Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate agreements: Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Geography - note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range People Marshall Islands ----------------------- Population: 73,630 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 49.1% (male 18,443; female 17,704) 15-64 years: 48.9% (male 18,347; female 17,628) 65 years and over: 2% (male 720; female 788) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 3.89% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 44.98 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 6.07 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/ female total population: 1.04 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 38.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.18 years female: 68.09 years (2002 est.) male: 64.35 years Total fertility rate: 6.49 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA% HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ NA AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA Nationality: noun: Marshallese (singular and plural) adjective: Marshallese Ethnic groups: Micronesian Religions: Christian (mostly Protestant) Languages: English (widely spoken as a second language, both English and Marshallese are official languages), two major Marshallese dialects from the Malayo-Polynesian family, Japanese Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 93.7% male: 93.6% female: 93.7% (1999) Government Marshall Islands --------------------------- Country name: conventional long form: Republic of the Marshall Islands conventional short form: Marshall Islands former: Marshall Islands District (Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) Government type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986 Capital: Majuro Administrative divisions: 33 municipalities; Ailinginae, Ailinglaplap, Ailuk, Arno, Aur, Bikar, Bikini, Bokak, Ebon, Enewetak, Erikub, Jabat, Jaluit, Jemo, Kili, Kwajalein, Lae, Lib, Likiep, Majuro, Maloelap, Mejit, Mili, Namorik, Namu, Rongelap, Rongrik, Toke, Ujae, Ujelang, Utirik, Wotho, Wotje Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US- administered UN trusteeship) National holiday: Constitution Day, 1 May (1979) Constitution: 1 May 1979 Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Kessai Hesa NOTE (since 3 January 2000); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president from among the members of Parliament elections: president elected by Parliament from among its own members for a four-year term; election last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003) election results: Kessai Hesa NOTE elected president; percent of Parliament vote - 100% Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Nitijela (33 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 15 November 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003) note: the Council of Chiefs is a 12- member body that advises on matters affecting customary law and practice election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA Judicial branch: Supreme Court; High Court Political parties and leaders: traditionally there have been no formally organized political parties; what has existed more closely resembles factions or interest groups because they do not have party headquarters, formal platforms, or party structures; the following two "groupings" have competed in legislative balloting in recent years - Kabua Party [Imata KABUA] and United Democratic Party or UDP [Litokwa TOMEING] Political pressure groups and NA leaders: International organization ACP, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, participation: IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IMF, IMO, Interpol, ITU, OPCW (signatory), Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, WHO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Banny DE BRUM chancery: 2433 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 consulate(s) general: Honolulu FAX: [1] (202) 232-3236 telephone: [1] (202) 234-5414 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Michael US: J. SENKO embassy: Oceanside, Mejen Weto, Long Island, Majuro mailing address: P. O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379 telephone: [692] 247-4011 FAX: [692] 247-4012 Flag description: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes Economy Marshall Islands ------------------------ Economy - overview: US Government assistance is the mainstay of this tiny island economy. Agricultural production is primarily subsistence and is concentrated on small farms; the most important commercial crops are coconuts and breadfruit. Small-scale industry is limited to handicrafts, tuna processing, and copra. The tourist industry, now a small source of foreign exchange employing less than 10% of the labor force, remains the best hope for future added income. The islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. Under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US provides roughly $39 million in annual aid. Negotiations have continued for an extended agreement. Government downsizing, drought, a drop in construction, the decline in tourism and foreign investment due to the Asian financial difficulties, and less income from the renewal of fishing vessel licenses have held GDP growth to an average of 1% over the past decade. GDP: purchasing power parity - $115 million (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 1% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 14% industry: 16% services: 70% (2000 est.) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA% percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.9% (1999 est.) Labor force: 28,698 Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 21.4%, industry 20.9%, services 57.7% Unemployment rate: 30.9% (1999 est.) Budget: revenues: $42 million expenditures: $40 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999) Industries: copra, fish, tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearls Industrial production growth rate: NA% Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99% hydro: 0% nuclear: 0% other: 1% (solar) Agriculture - products: coconuts, tomatoes, melons, taro, breadfruit, fruits; pigs, chickens Exports: $9 million (f.o.b., 2000) Exports - commodities: copra cake, coconut oil, handicrafts Exports - partners: US, Japan, Australia Imports: $54 million (f.o.b., 2000) Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fuels, beverages and tobacco Imports - partners: US, Japan, Australia, NZ, Singapore, Fiji, China, Philippines Debt - external: $86.5 million (FY99/00 est.) Economic aid - recipient: approximately $39 million annually from the US Currency: US dollar (USD) Currency code: USD Exchange rates: the US dollar is used Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September Communications Marshall Islands ------------------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 4,186 (2001) Telephones - mobile cellular: 489 (2001) Telephone system: general assessment: digital switching equipment; modern services include telex, cellular, internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2001) Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 note: additionally, the US Armed Forces Radio and Television Services (Central Pacific Network) operate one FM and one AM station on Kwajalein (2002) Radios: NA Television broadcast stations: 2 (both are US military stations) (2002) Televisions: NA Internet country code: .mh Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2002) Internet users: 537 (2001) Transportation Marshall Islands ------------------------------- Railways: 0 km Highways: total: NA km paved: 64.5 km unpaved: NA km note: paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks (2002) Waterways: none Ports and harbors: Majuro Merchant marine: total: 270 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,807,839 GRT/19,332,014 DWT note: the ship's register of the Marshall Islands is a flag of convenience register since essentially none of the vessels on it is owned domestically, includes the following foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: China 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 9, Germany 70, Greece 54, Hong Kong 2, Japan 4, Monaco 8, Netherlands 8, Norway 10, Poland 16, Singapore 1, Turkey 6, United Kingdom 3, United States 87, Uruguay 1 (2002 est.) ships by type: bulk 82, cargo 14, chemical tanker 24, combination ore/ oil 4, container 46, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 88, vehicle carrier 3 Airports: 17 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 13 914 to 1,523 m: 10 under 914 m: 3 (2001) Military Marshall Islands ------------------------- Military branches: no regular military forces; Police Force Military expenditures - dollar $NA figure: Military expenditures - percent of NA% GDP: Military - note: defense is the responsibility of the US Transnational Issues Marshall Islands ------------------------------------- Disputes - international: claims US territory of Wake Island