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Wordnet 3.0

NOUN (1)

1. a republic in northeastern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea;
[syn: Latvia, Republic of Latvia]

WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):

Latvia n 1: a republic in northeastern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea [syn: Latvia, Republic of Latvia]
CIA World Factbook 2002:

Latvia Introduction Latvia ------------------- Background: After a brief period of independence between the two World Wars, Latvia was annexed by the USSR in 1940. It reestablished its independence in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Although the last Russian troops left in 1994, the status of the Russian minority (some 30% of the population) remains of concern to Moscow. Latvia continues to revamp its economy for eventual integration into various Western European political and economic institutions. Geography Latvia ---------------- Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Estonia and Lithuania Geographic coordinates: 57 00 N, 25 00 E Map references: Europe Area: total: 64,589 sq km water: 1,000 sq km land: 63,589 sq km Area - comparative: slightly larger than West Virginia Land boundaries: total: 1,150 km border countries: Belarus 141 km, Estonia 339 km, Lithuania 453 km, Russia 217 km Coastline: 531 km Maritime claims: continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive economic zone: 200 NM territorial sea: 12 NM Climate: maritime; wet, moderate winters Terrain: low plain Elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m highest point: Gaizinkalns 312 m Natural resources: peat, limestone, dolomite, hydropower, wood, arable land, minimal; amber Land use: arable land: 29.01% permanent crops: 0.48% other: 70.51% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 200 sq km note: land in Latvia is often too wet, and in need of drainage, not irrigation; approximately 16,000 sq km or 85% of agricultural land has been improved by drainage (1998 est.) Natural hazards: NA Environment - current issues: Latvia's environment has benefited from a shift to service industries after the country regained independence; the main environmental priorities are improvement of drinking water quality and sewage system, household and hazardous waste management, and reduction of air pollution; in 2001, Latvia closed the EU accession negotiation chapter on environment committing to full enforcement of EU environmental directives by 2010 Environment - international party to: Air Pollution, agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol Geography - note: most of the country is composed of fertile, low-lying plains, with some hills in the east People Latvia ------------- Population: 2,366,515 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.8% (male 191,116; female 182,692) 15-64 years: 68.6% (male 775,481; female 847,261) 65 years and over: 15.6% (male 120,304; female 249,661) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: -0.77% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 8.27 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 14.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: -1.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/ female total population: 0.85 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 14.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69 years female: 75.17 years (2002 est.) male: 63.13 years Total fertility rate: 1.18 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.12% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 1,792 (15 January 2002) AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: 36 (15 January 2002) Nationality: noun: Latvian(s) adjective: Latvian Ethnic groups: Latvian 57.7%, Russian 29.6%, Belarusian 4.1%, Ukrainian 2.7%, Polish 2.5%, Lithuanian 1.4%, other 2% Religions: Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Russian Orthodox Languages: Latvian (official), Lithuanian, Russian, other Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.8% male: NA% female: NA% Government Latvia ----------------- Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Latvia conventional short form: Latvia local short form: Latvija former: Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic local long form: Latvijas Republika Government type: parliamentary democracy Capital: Riga Administrative divisions: 26 counties (singular - rajons) and 7 municipalities*: Aizkraukles Rajons, Aluksnes Rajons, Balvu Rajons, Bauskas Rajons, Cesu Rajons, Daugavpils*, Daugavpils Rajons, Dobeles Rajons, Gulbenes Rajons, Jekabpils Rajons, Jelgava*, Jelgavas Rajons, Jurmala*, Kraslavas Rajons, Kuldigas Rajons, Liepaja*, Liepajas Rajons, Limbazu Rajons, Ludzas Rajons, Madonas Rajons, Ogres Rajons, Preilu Rajons, Rezekne*, Rezeknes Rajons, Riga*, Rigas Rajons, Saldus Rajons, Talsu Rajons, Tukuma Rajons, Valkas Rajons, Valmieras Rajons, Ventspils*, Ventspils Rajons Independence: 21 August 1991 (from Soviet Union) National holiday: Independence Day, 18 November (1918); note - 18 November 1918 is the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 21 August 1991 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union Constitution: the 1991 Constitutional Law which supplements the 1922 constitution, provides for basic rights and freedoms Legal system: based on civil law system Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal for Latvian citizens Executive branch: chief of state: President Vaira VIKE-FREIBERGA (since 8 July 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Andris BERZINS (since 5 May 2000) cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the Parliament elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term; election last held 17 June 1999 (next to be held by June 2003); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Vaira VIKE- FREIBERGA elected as a compromise candidate in second phase of balloting, second round (after five rounds in first phase failed to produce a clear winner); percent of parliamentary vote - Vaira VIKE- FREIBERGA 53%, Valdis BIRKAVS 20%, Ingrida UDRE 9% Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Saeima (100 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four- year terms) elections: last held 3 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2002) election results: percent of vote by party - People's Party 21%, LC 18%, TSP 14%, TB/LNNK 14%, Social Democrats 13%, New Party 7%; seats by party - People's Party 24, LC 21, TB/LNNK 17, TSP 16, Social Democrats 14, New Party 8 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges' appointments are confirmed by Parliament) Political parties and leaders: Anticommunist Union or PA [P. MUCENIEKS]; Christian Democrat Union or LKDS [Talavs JUNDZIS]; Christian People's Party or KTP [Uldis AUGSTKALNS]; Democratic Party "Saimnieks" or DPS [Ziedonis CEVERS, chairman]; For Fatherland and Freedom or TB [Maris GRINBLATS], merged with LNNK; For Human Rights in a United Latvia [Janis JURKANS], a coalition of the People's Harmony Party or TSP, the Latvian Socialist Party or LSP, and the Equal Rights Movement; Green Party or LZP [Olegs BATAREVSKI]; Latvian Liberal Party or LLP [J. DANOSS]; Latvian National Conservative Party or LNNK [Andrejs KRASTINS]; Latvian National Democratic Party or LNDP [A. MALINS]; Latvian Social-Democratic Workers Party (Social Democrats) or LSDWU [Juris BOJARS and Janis ADAMSONS]; Latvian Unity Party or LVP [Alberis KAULS]; Latvia's Way or LC [Andrei PANTELEJEVS]; New Christian Party [Ainars SLESERS]; New Faction [Ingrida UDRE]; New Party [leader NA]; New Times Party [Einars REPSE]; "Our Land" or MZ [M. DAMBEKALNE]; Party of Russian Citizens or LKPP [V. SOROCHIN, V. IVANOV]; People's Party [Andris SKELE]; Political Union of Economists or TPA [Edvins KIDE] Political pressure groups and NA leaders: International organization BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, participation: EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Aivis RONIS FAX: [1] (202) 726-6785 telephone: [1] (202) 726-8213, 8214 chancery: 4325 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Brian US: E. CARLSON embassy: 7 Raina Boulevard, Riga LV- 1510 mailing address: American Embassy Riga, PSC 78, Box Riga, APO AE 09723 telephone: [371] 721-0005 FAX: [371] 782-0047 Flag description: three horizontal bands of maroon (top), white (half-width), and maroon Economy Latvia -------------- Economy - overview: Latvia's transitional economy recovered from the 1998 Russian financial crisis, largely due to the SKELE government's budget stringency and a gradual reorientation of exports toward EU countries, lessening Latvia's trade dependency on Russia. The majority of companies, banks, and real estate have been privatized. Latvia officially joined the World Trade Organization in February 1999 - the first Baltic state to join - and was invited at the Helsinki EU Summit in December 1999 to begin accession talks in early 2000. Preparing for EU membership over the next few years remains a top foreign policy goal. The high current account deficit remains a major concern. GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.6 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $7,800 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 5% industry: 24% services: 71% (2000) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.9% percentage share: highest 10%: 25.9% (1998) Distribution of family income - Gini 32 (1999) index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (2001) Labor force: 1.1 million (2001 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 15%, industry 25%, services 60% (2000 est.) Unemployment rate: 7.6% (2001 est.) Budget: revenues: $2.4 billion expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.) Industries: buses, vans, street and railroad cars, synthetic fibers, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, washing machines, radios, electronics, pharmaceuticals, processed foods, textiles; note - dependent on imports for energy and raw materials Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (2001 est.) Electricity - production: 3.301 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 33.02% hydro: 66.98% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 5.16 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 500 million kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 2.59 billion kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: grain, sugar beets, potatoes, vegetables; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 2001) Exports - commodities: wood and wood products, machinery and equipment, metals, textiles, foodstuffs Exports - partners: Germany 17%, UK 16%, Sweden 10%, Lithuania 8% (2001 est.) Imports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 2001) Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, vehicles Imports - partners: Germany 17%, Russia 9%, Lithuania 8%, Finland 8%, Sweden 7% (2001 est.) Debt - external: $2.6 billion (2000 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $96.2 million (1995) Currency: Latvian lat (LVL) Currency code: LVL Exchange rates: lati per US dollar - 0.6384 (January 2002), 0.628 (2001), 0.607 (2000), 0.585 (1999), 0.590 (1998), 0.581 (1997) Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Latvia --------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 734,693 (2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: 401,263 (2000) Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an international capability independent of the Moscow international switch; more facilities are being installed for individual use domestic: expansion underway in intercity trunk line connections, rural exchanges, and mobile systems; still many unsatisfied subscriber applications international: international connections are now available via cable and a satellite earth station at Riga, enabling direct connections for most calls (1998) Radio broadcast stations: AM 8, FM 56, shortwave 1 (1998) Radios: 1.76 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 44 (plus 31 repeaters) (1995) Televisions: 1.22 million (1997) Internet country code: .lv Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 41 (2001) Internet users: 310,000 (2001) Transportation Latvia --------------------- Railways: total: 2,412 km broad gauge: 2,379 km 1.520-m gauge (271 km electrified) narrow gauge: 33 km 0.750-m gauge (2001) Highways: total: 59,178 km paved: 22,843 km unpaved: 36,335 km (1998 est.) Waterways: 300 km (perennially navigable) Pipelines: crude oil 750 km; refined products 780 km; natural gas 560 km (1992) Ports and harbors: Liepaja, Riga, Ventspils Merchant marine: total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 30,119 GRT/30,572 DWT note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 3 (2002 est.) ships by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 4 Airports: 25 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 13 2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 1 under 914 m: 4 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 12 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 7 (2001) Military Latvia --------------- Military branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Guard, National Guard Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 591,592 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 464,843 (2002 est.) service: Military manpower - reaching males: 19,114 (2002 est.) military age annually: Military expenditures - dollar $87 million (FY01) figure: Military expenditures - percent of 1.2% (FY01) GDP: Transnational Issues Latvia --------------------------- Disputes - international: the Russian Duma refuses to ratify boundary delimitation treaty with Latvia; the Latvian Parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over oil exploration rights Illicit drugs: transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Central and Southwest Asia to Western Europe and Scandinavia and Latin American cocaine and some synthetics from Western Europe to CIS