1. something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary
; - Example: "he considered misrule a justification for revolution"
2. a statement in explanation of some action or belief
3. the act of defending or explaining or making excuses for by reasoning
; - Example: "the justification of barbarous means by holy ends"- H.J.Muller
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Justification \Jus`ti*fi*ca"tion\, n. [L. justificatio: cf. F.
justification. See Justify.]
1. The act of justifying or the state of being justified; a
showing or proving to be just or conformable to law,
justice, right, or duty; defense; vindication; support;
as, arguments in justification of the prisoner's conduct;
his disobedience admits justification.
I hope, for my brother's justification, he wrote
this but as an essay or taste of my virtue. --Shak.
2. (Law) The showing in court of a sufficient lawful reason
why a party charged or accused did that for which he is
called to answer.
3. (Theol.) The act of justifying, or the state of being
justified, in respect to God's requirements.
Who was delivered for our offenses, and was raised
again for our justification. --Rom. iv. 25.
In such righteousness
To them by faith imputed, they may find
Justification toward God, and peace
Of conscience. --Milton.
4. (Print.) Adjustment of type (in printing), or of the final
spacing of printed text, by spacing it so as to make it
exactly fill a line, or line up at one edge of the
allotted portion of the printed page; adjustment of a cut
so as to hold it in the right place; also, the leads,
quads, etc., used for making such adjustment; as, left
justification is the most common format for simple
letters, but left and right justification is typically
used in books.
WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):
n 1: something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an
action to be reasonable or necessary; "he considered
misrule a justification for revolution"
2: a statement in explanation of some action or belief
3: the act of defending or explaining or making excuses for by
reasoning; "the justification of barbarous means by holy
Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0:
80 Moby Thesaurus words for "justification":
Intertype, Linotype, Monotype, account, apologetic, apologia,
beatification, beatitude, blessedness, blessing, canonization,
cold-type typesetting, composing, composing stick, composition,
computerized typesetting, consecration, dedication, defense,
defensibility, devotion, drumhead justice, dueness, dummy,
enshrinement, equitableness, equity, evenhandedness, exaltation,
furniture, galley chase, give-and-take, glorification, grace,
hallowing, hot-metal typesetting, imposition, justice,
justifiability, justifiableness, justification by works, justness,
lawfulness, layout, legality, line of type, measure for measure,
meetness, nemesis, photocomposition, photosetting, phototypesetter,
phototypesetting machine, poetic justice, properness, propriety,
purification, quoin, rationale, rationalization, reason,
retributive justice, right, rightfulness, rightness, rude justice,
sainthood, sainting, sanctification, scales of justice, setting,
setting apart, slug, state of grace, summary justice, typesetting,
typesetting machine, warrantability, warrantedness,
what is right
Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary:
a forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature,
it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins
of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and
treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as
conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.)
of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law
are satisfied in respect of the justified. It is the act of a
judge and not of a sovereign. The law is not relaxed or set
aside, but is declared to be fulfilled in the strictest sense;
and so the person justified is declared to be entitled to all
the advantages and rewards arising from perfect obedience to the
law (Rom. 5:1-10).
It proceeds on the imputing or crediting to the believer by
God himself of the perfect righteousness, active and passive, of
his Representative and Surety, Jesus Christ (Rom. 10:3-9).
Justification is not the forgiveness of a man without
righteousness, but a declaration that he possesses a
righteousness which perfectly and for ever satisfies the law,
namely, Christ's righteousness (2 Cor. 5:21; Rom. 4:6-8).
The sole condition on which this righteousness is imputed or
credited to the believer is faith in or on the Lord Jesus
Christ. Faith is called a "condition," not because it possesses
any merit, but only because it is the instrument, the only
instrument by which the soul appropriates or apprehends Christ
and his righteousness (Rom. 1:17; 3:25, 26; 4:20, 22; Phil.
3:8-11; Gal. 2:16).
The act of faith which thus secures our justification secures
also at the same time our sanctification (q.v.); and thus the
doctrine of justification by faith does not lead to
licentiousness (Rom. 6:2-7). Good works, while not the ground,
are the certain consequence of justification (6:14; 7:6). (See
GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO.)