Search Result for "israel": 
Wordnet 3.0

NOUN (2)

1. Jewish republic in southwestern Asia at eastern end of Mediterranean; formerly part of Palestine;
[syn: Israel, State of Israel, Yisrael, Zion, Sion]

2. an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea; founded by Saul around 1025 BC and destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 BC;

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Jacob \Ja"cob\, n. [Cf. F. Jacob. See 2d Jack.] A Hebrew patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews), who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven (--Gen. xxviii. 12); -- also called Israel. [1913 Webster] And Jacob said . . . with my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am become two bands. --Gen. xxxii. 9, 10. [1913 Webster] Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel. --Gen. xxxii. 28. [1913 Webster] Jacob's ladder. (a) (Bot.) A perennial herb of the genus Polemonium (Polemonium c[oe]ruleum), having corymbs of drooping flowers, usually blue. Gray. (b) (Naut.) A rope ladder, with wooden steps, for going aloft. --R. H. Dana, Jr. (c) (Naut.) A succession of short cracks in a defective spar. Jacob's membrane. See Retina. Jacob's staff. (a) A name given to many forms of staff or weapon, especially in the Middle Ages; a pilgrim's staff. [Obs.] --Spenser. (b) (Surveying) See under Staff. [1913 Webster]
WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):

Israel n 1: Jewish republic in southwestern Asia at eastern end of Mediterranean; formerly part of Palestine [syn: Israel, State of Israel, Yisrael, Zion, Sion] 2: an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea; founded by Saul around 1025 BC and destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 BC
Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary:

Israel the name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Gen. 32:28), because "as a prince he had power with God and prevailed." (See JACOB.) This is the common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called "Israelites," the "children of Israel" (Josh. 3:17; 7:25; Judg. 8:27; Jer. 3:21), and the "house of Israel" (Ex. 16:31; 40:38). This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true Israel (Ps. 73:1: Isa. 45:17; 49:3; John 1:47; Rom. 9:6; 11:26). After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Sam. 2:9, 10, 17, 28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were called "kings of Israel," while the kings of the two tribes were called "kings of Judah." After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire nation.
Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary (late 1800's):

Israel, who prevails with God
CIA World Factbook 2002:

Israel Introduction Israel ------------------- Background: Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives (from the Israeli- occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip) and Syria, to achieve a permanent settlement; however, these efforts were derailed/postponed by the outbreak of Israeli-Palestinian violence in September 2000. On 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. Geography Israel ---------------- Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E Map references: Middle East Area: total: 20,770 sq km water: 440 sq km land: 20,330 sq km Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey Land boundaries: total: 1,017 km border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km Coastline: 273 km Maritime claims: continental shelf: to depth of exploitation territorial sea: 12 NM Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m Natural resources: timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand Land use: arable land: 17.02% permanent crops: 4.17% other: 78.81% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 1,990 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes Environment - current issues: limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation Geography - note: there are 231 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli- occupied Golan Heights, 25 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (August 2001 est.); Sea of Galilee is an important freshwater source People Israel ------------- Population: 6,029,529 (July 2002 est.) note: includes about 182,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank, about 20,000 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, fewer than 7,000 in the Gaza Strip, and about 176,000 in East Jerusalem (August 2001 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.1% (male 837,491; female 798,695) 15-64 years: 63% (male 1,905,677; female 1,889,525) 65 years and over: 9.9% (male 257,066; female 341,075) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 1.48% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 18.91 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: 2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/ female total population: 0.99 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 7.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.86 years female: 81.01 years (2002 est.) male: 76.82 years Total fertility rate: 2.54 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.08% (1999 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 2,400 (1999 est.) AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.) Nationality: noun: Israeli(s) adjective: Israeli Ethnic groups: Jewish 80.1% (Europe/America-born 32.1%, Israel-born 20.8%, Africa- born 14.6%, Asia-born 12.6%), non- Jewish 19.9% (mostly Arab) (1996 est.) Religions: Jewish 80.1%, Muslim 14.6% (mostly Sunni Muslim), Christian 2.1%, other 3.2% (1996 est.) Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic used officially for Arab minority, English most commonly used foreign language Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 95% male: 97% female: 93% (1992 est.) Government Israel ----------------- Country name: conventional long form: State of Israel conventional short form: Israel local short form: Yisra'el local long form: Medinat Yisra'el Government type: parliamentary democracy Capital: Jerusalem; note - Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration) National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal systems; in December 1985, Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Moshe KATSAV (since 31 July 2000) elections: president elected by the Knesset for a five-year term; election last held 31 July 1999 (next to be held NA July 2003); prime minister elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 6 February 2001 (next to be held NA November 2003); note - in March 1992, the Knesset approved legislation, effective in 1996, which allowed for the direct election of the prime minister, but in 2001 the Knesset voted to restore the previous method under which the legislators will choose the next prime minister after the next legislative elections in 2003 head of government: Prime Minister Ariel SHARON (since 7 March 2001) cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset election results: Moshe KATSAV elected president by the 120-member Knesset with a total of 60 votes, other candidate, Shimon PERES, received 57 votes (there were three abstentions); Ariel SHARON elected prime minister; percent of vote - Ariel SHARON 62.5%, Ehud BARAK 37.4%; note - after the next legislative elections scheduled for 2003, the prime minister will be elected by the Knesset Legislative branch: unicameral Knesset or parliament (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 17 May 1999 (next to be held NA November 2003) election results: percent of vote by party - One Israel 20.2%, Likud Party 14.1%, Shas 13%, Meretz 7.6%, Yisra'el Ba'Aliya 5.1%, Shinui 5%, Center Party 5%, National Religious Party 4.2%, United Torah Judaism 3.7%, United Arab List 3.4%, National Union 3%, Hadash 2.6%, Yisra'el Beiteinu 2.6%, Balad 1.9%, One Nation 1.9%, Democratic Movement NA (party formed after election, members elected under Yisra'el Ba'Aliya list); seats by party - One Israel 24, Likud Party 19, Shas 17, MERETZ 10, Yisra'el Ba'Aliya 4, Shinui 6, Center Party 5, National Religious Party 5, United Torah Judaism 5, United Arab List 5, National Union 3, Hadash 3, Yisra'el Beiteinu 4, Democratic Movement 2 (party formed after election, members elected under Yisra'el Ba'Aliya list), Balad 2, One Nation 2 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed for life by the president) Political parties and leaders: Balad or National Democratic Alliance [Azmi BISHARA]; Center Party [Dan MERIDOR]; Democratic Movement [Roman BRONFMAN]; Gesher [David LEVI]; Hadash [Muhammad BARAKA]; Labor Party [Binyamin BEN- ELIEZER]; Likud Party [Ariel SHARON]; Meretz [Yossi SARID]; National Religious Party [Yitzhak LEVY]; National Union [Benyamin ELON] (includes Herut, Tekuma, and Moledet); One Israel [Ra'anan COHEN]; One Nation [Amir PERETZ]; Shas [Eliyahu YISHAI]; Shinui [Tommy LAPID]; United Arab List [Abd al- Malik DAHAMSHAH]; United Torah Judaism [Meir PORUSH]; Yisra'el Ba'Aliya [Natan SHARANSKY]; Yisra'el Beiteinu [Avigdor LIEBERMAN] Political pressure groups and Israeli nationalists advocating leaders: Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Yesha (settler) Council promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; B'Tselem monitors human rights abuses International organization BSEC (observer), CCC, CE (observer), participation: CERN (observer), EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS (associate), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David IVRY consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco FAX: [1] (202) 364-3607 telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500 chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel US: C. KURTZER embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv mailing address: PSC 98, Unit 7228, APO AE 09830 telephone: [972] (3) 519-7575 FAX: [972] (3) 517-3227 consulate(s) general: Jerusalem; note - an independent US mission, established in 1928, whose members are not accredited to a foreign government Flag description: white with a blue hexagram (six- pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag Economy Israel -------------- Economy - overview: Israel has a technologically advanced market economy with substantial government participation. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. Israel is largely self-sufficient in food production except for grains. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the leading exports. Israel usually posts sizable current account deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, which is its major source of economic and military aid. The influx of Jewish immigrants from the former USSR during the period 1989- 99 coupled with the opening of new markets at the end of the Cold War, energized Israel's economy, which grew rapidly in the early 1990s. But growth began moderating in 1996 when the government imposed tighter fiscal and monetary policies and the immigration bonus petered out. Growth was a strong 6.4% in 2000. But the outbreak of Palestinian unrest in late September 2000 and the declines in the high-technology and tourist sectors led to a 0.6% drop in GDP in 2001. GDP: purchasing power parity - $119 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: -0.6% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $20,000 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 4% industry: 37% services: 59% (1999 est.) Population below poverty line: NA% Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 2.8% percentage share: highest 10%: 26.9% (1992) Distribution of family income - Gini 35.5 (1992) index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (2001 est.) Labor force: 2.4 million (2000 est.) Labor force - by occupation: public services 31.2%, manufacturing 20.2%, finance and business 13.1%, commerce 12.8%, construction 7.5%, personal and other services 6.4%, transport, storage, and communications 6.2%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 2.6% (1996) Unemployment rate: 9% (2001 est.) Budget: revenues: $40 billion expenditures: $42.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.) Industries: high-technology projects (including aviation, communications, computer- aided design and manufactures, medical electronics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, diamond cutting Industrial production growth rate: -4.5% (2001) Electricity - production: 38.876 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 99.89% hydro: 0.11% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 34.897 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 1.27 billion kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 12 million kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products Exports: $26.5 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel Exports - partners: US 37.4%, Benelux 6%, Germany 4.8%, Hong Kong 4.4%, UK 4.3%, Netherlands 2.8% (2000) Imports: $30.6 billion (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Imports - commodities: raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, consumer goods Imports - partners: US 17.8%, Benelux 10%, UK 7.6%, Germany 7.5%, Switzerland 5.4%, Italy 4.8% (2000) Debt - external: $42.8 billion (2001 est.) Economic aid - recipient: NA Currency: new Israeli shekel (ILS) Currency code: ILS Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels per US dollar - 4.2757 (December 2001), 4.2057 (2001), 4.0773 (2000), 4.1397 (1999), 3.8001 (1998), 3.4494 (1997) Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Israel --------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 2.8 million (1999) Telephones - mobile cellular: 2.5 million (1999) Telephone system: general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) Radio broadcast stations: AM 23, FM 15, shortwave 2 (1998) Radios: 3.07 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 17 (plus 36 low-power repeaters) (1995) Televisions: 1.69 million (1997) Internet country code: .il Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 21 (2000) Internet users: 1.94 million (2001) Transportation Israel --------------------- Railways: total: 647 km standard gauge: 647 km 1.435-m gauge (2001) Highways: total: 15,965 km paved: 15,965 km (including 56 km of expressways) unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.) Waterways: none Pipelines: crude oil 708 km; petroleum products 290 km; natural gas 89 km Ports and harbors: Ashdod, Ashqelon, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa, Tel Aviv-Yafo Merchant marine: total: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 595,319 GRT/704,544 DWT ships by type: container 15, roll on/roll off 1 (2002 est.) Airports: 54 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 29 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 5 (2001) 1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 25 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 20 (2001) Heliports: 3 (2001) Military Israel --------------- Military branches: Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (includes ground, naval, and air components with Air Defense Forces), Pioneer Fighting Youth (Nahal), Frontier Guard, Chen (women); note - historically there have been no separate Israeli military services Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age (2002 est.) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,542,835 females age 15-49: 1,499,830 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,262,973 service: females age 15-49: 1,223,939 (2002 est.) Military manpower - reaching males: 51,666 military age annually: females: 49,207 (2002 est.) Military expenditures - dollar $8.866 bilion (FY01) figure: Military expenditures - percent of 8% (FY01) GDP: Transnational Issues Israel --------------------------- Disputes - international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights) Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about cocaine and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and increasingly Jordan