The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Sand \Sand\, n. [AS. sand; akin to D. zand, G. sand, OHG. sant,
Icel. sandr, Dan. & Sw. sand, Gr. ?.]
1. Fine particles of stone, esp. of siliceous stone, but not
reduced to dust; comminuted stone in the form of loose
grains, which are not coherent when wet.
That finer matter, called sand, is no other than
very small pebbles. --Woodward.
2. A single particle of such stone. [R.] --Shak.
3. The sand in the hourglass; hence, a moment or interval of
time; the term or extent of one's life.
The sands are numbered that make up my life. --Shak.
4. pl. Tracts of land consisting of sand, like the deserts of
Arabia and Africa; also, extensive tracts of sand exposed
by the ebb of the tide. "The Libyan sands." --Milton. "The
sands o' Dee." --C. Kingsley.
5. Courage; pluck; grit. [Slang]
Sand badger (Zool.), the Japanese badger (Meles ankuma).
(a) A bag filled with sand or earth, used for various
purposes, as in fortification, for ballast, etc.
(b) A long bag filled with sand, used as a club by
Sand ball, soap mixed with sand, made into a ball for use
at the toilet.
(a) (Chem.) A vessel of hot sand in a laboratory, in which
vessels that are to be heated are partially immersed.
(b) A bath in which the body is immersed in hot sand.
Sand bed, a thick layer of sand, whether deposited
naturally or artificially; specifically, a thick layer of
sand into which molten metal is run in casting, or from a
Sand birds (Zool.), a collective name for numerous species
of limicoline birds, such as the sandpipers, plovers,
tattlers, and many others; -- called also shore birds.
Sand blast, a process of engraving and cutting glass and
other hard substances by driving sand against them by a
steam jet or otherwise; also, the apparatus used in the
(a) A box with a perforated top or cover, for sprinkling
paper with sand.
(b) A box carried on locomotives, from which sand runs on
the rails in front of the driving wheel, to prevent
Sand-box tree (Bot.), a tropical American tree (Hura
crepitans). Its fruit is a depressed many-celled woody
capsule which, when completely dry, bursts with a loud
report and scatters the seeds. See Illust. of Regma.
Sand bug (Zool.), an American anomuran crustacean (Hippa
talpoidea) which burrows in sandy seabeaches. It is often
used as bait by fishermen. See Illust. under Anomura.
Sand canal (Zool.), a tubular vessel having a calcareous
coating, and connecting the oral ambulacral ring with the
madreporic tubercle. It appears to be excretory in
Sand cock (Zool.), the redshank. [Prov. Eng.]
Sand collar. (Zool.) Same as Sand saucer, below.
Sand crab. (Zool.)
(a) The lady crab.
(b) A land crab, or ocypodian.
Sand crack (Far.), a crack extending downward from the
coronet, in the wall of a horse's hoof, which often causes
Sand cricket (Zool.), any one of several species of large
terrestrial crickets of the genus Stenophelmatus and
allied genera, native of the sandy plains of the Western
Sand cusk (Zool.), any ophidioid fish. See Illust. under
Sand dab (Zool.), a small American flounder (Limanda
ferruginea); -- called also rusty dab. The name is also
applied locally to other allied species.
Sand darter (Zool.), a small etheostomoid fish of the Ohio
valley (Ammocrypta pellucida).
Sand dollar (Zool.), any one of several species of small
flat circular sea urchins, which live on sandy bottoms,
especially Echinarachnius parma of the American coast.
Sand drift, drifting sand; also, a mound or bank of drifted
Sand eel. (Zool.)
(a) A lant, or launce.
(b) A slender Pacific Ocean fish of the genus
Gonorhynchus, having barbels about the mouth.
Sand flag, sandstone which splits up into flagstones.
Sand flea. (Zool.)
(a) Any species of flea which inhabits, or breeds in,
sandy places, especially the common dog flea.
(b) The chigoe.
(c) Any leaping amphipod crustacean; a beach flea, or
orchestian. See Beach flea, under Beach.
Sand flood, a vast body of sand borne along by the wind.
Sand fluke. (Zool.)
(a) The sandnecker.
(b) The European smooth dab (Pleuronectes
microcephalus); -- called also kitt, marysole,
smear dab, town dab.
Sand fly (Zool.), any one of several species of small
dipterous flies of the genus Simulium, abounding on
sandy shores, especially Simulium nocivum of the United
States. They are very troublesome on account of their
biting habits. Called also no-see-um, punky, and
Sand gall. (Geol.) See Sand pipe, below.
Sand grass (Bot.), any species of grass which grows in
sand; especially, a tufted grass (Triplasis purpurea)
with numerous bearded joints, and acid awl-shaped leaves,
growing on the Atlantic coast.
Sand grouse (Zool.), any one of many species of Old World
birds belonging to the suborder Pterocletes, and
resembling both grouse and pigeons. Called also rock
grouse, rock pigeon, and ganga. They mostly belong to
the genus Pterocles, as the common Indian species
(Pterocles exustus). The large sand grouse (Pterocles
arenarius), the painted sand grouse (Pterocles
fasciatus), and the pintail sand grouse (Pterocles
alchata) are also found in India. See Illust. under
Sand hill, a hill of sand; a dune.
Sand-hill crane (Zool.), the American brown crane (Grus
Sand hopper (Zool.), a beach flea; an orchestian.
Sand hornet (Zool.), a sand wasp.
Sand lark. (Zool.)
(a) A small lark (Alaudala raytal), native of India.
(b) A small sandpiper, or plover, as the ringneck, the
sanderling, and the common European sandpiper.
(c) The Australian red-capped dotterel (Aegialophilus
ruficapillus); -- called also red-necked plover.
Sand launce (Zool.), a lant, or launce.
Sand lizard (Zool.), a common European lizard (Lacerta
Sand martin (Zool.), the bank swallow.
Sand mole (Zool.), the coast rat.
Sand monitor (Zool.), a large Egyptian lizard (Monitor
arenarius) which inhabits dry localities.
Sand mouse (Zool.), the dunlin. [Prov. Eng.]
Sand myrtle. (Bot.) See under Myrtle.
Sand partridge (Zool.), either of two small Asiatic
partridges of the genus Ammoperdix. The wings are long
and the tarsus is spurless. One species (Ammoperdix
Heeji) inhabits Palestine and Arabia. The other species
(Ammoperdix Bonhami), inhabiting Central Asia, is called
also seesee partridge, and teehoo.
Sand picture, a picture made by putting sand of different
colors on an adhesive surface.
Sand pike. (Zool.)
(a) The sauger.
(b) The lizard fish.
Sand pillar, a sand storm which takes the form of a
whirling pillar in its progress in desert tracts like
those of the Sahara and Mongolia.
Sand pipe (Geol.), a tubular cavity, from a few inches to
several feet in depth, occurring especially in calcareous
rocks, and often filled with gravel, sand, etc.; -- called
also sand gall.
Sand pride (Zool.), a small British lamprey now considered
to be the young of larger species; -- called also sand
Sand pump, in artesian well boring, a long, slender bucket
with a valve at the bottom for raising sand from the well.
Sand rat (Zool.), the pocket gopher.
Sand rock, a rock made of cemented sand.
Sand runner (Zool.), the turnstone.
Sand saucer (Zool.), the mass of egg capsules, or oothecae,
of any mollusk of the genus Natica and allied genera. It
has the shape of a bottomless saucer, and is coated with
fine sand; -- called also sand collar.
Sand screw (Zool.), an amphipod crustacean (Lepidactylis
arenarius), which burrows in the sandy seabeaches of
Europe and America.
Sand shark (Zool.), an American shark (Odontaspis
littoralis) found on the sandy coasts of the Eastern
United States; -- called also gray shark, and dogfish
shark. See Illust. under Remora.
Sand skink (Zool.), any one of several species of Old World
lizards belonging to the genus Seps; as, the ocellated
sand skink (Seps ocellatus) of Southern Europe.
Sand skipper (Zool.), a beach flea, or orchestian.
Sand smelt (Zool.), a silverside.
Sand snake. (Zool.)
(a) Any one of several species of harmless burrowing
snakes of the genus Eryx, native of Southern Europe,
Africa, and Asia, especially Eryx jaculus of India
and Eryx Johnii, used by snake charmers.
(b) Any innocuous South African snake of the genus
Psammophis, especially Psammophis sibilans.
Sand snipe (Zool.), the sandpiper.
Sand star (Zool.), an ophiurioid starfish living on sandy
sea bottoms; a brittle star.
Sand storm, a cloud of sand driven violently by the wind.
Sand sucker, the sandnecker.
Sand swallow (Zool.), the bank swallow. See under Bank.
Sand trap, (Golf) a shallow pit on a golf course having a
layer of sand in it, usually located near a green, and
designed to function as a hazard, due to the difficulty of
hitting balls effectively from such a position.
Sand tube, a tube made of sand. Especially:
(a) A tube of vitrified sand, produced by a stroke of
lightning; a fulgurite.
(b) (Zool.) Any tube made of cemented sand.
(c) (Zool.) In starfishes, a tube having calcareous
particles in its wall, which connects the oral water
tube with the madreporic plate.
Sand viper. (Zool.) See Hognose snake.
Sand wasp (Zool.), any one of numerous species of
hymenopterous insects belonging to the families
Pompilidae and Spheridae, which dig burrows in sand.
The female provisions the nest with insects or spiders
which she paralyzes by stinging, and which serve as food
for her young.
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Shark \Shark\ (sh[aum]rk), n. [Of uncertain origin; perhaps
through OF. fr. carcharus a kind of dogfish, Gr. karchari`as,
so called from its sharp teeth, fr. ka`rcharos having sharp
or jagged teeth; or perhaps named from its rapacity (cf.
Shark, v. t. & i.); cf. Corn. scarceas.]
1. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of elasmobranch fishes
of the order Plagiostomi, found in all seas.
Note: Some sharks, as the basking shark and the whale shark,
grow to an enormous size, the former becoming forty
feet or more, and the latter sixty feet or more, in
length. Most of them are harmless to man, but some are
exceedingly voracious. The man-eating sharks mostly
belong to the genera Carcharhinus, Carcharodon, and
related genera. They have several rows of large sharp
teeth with serrated edges, as the great white shark
(Carcharodon carcharias or Carcharodon Rondeleti)
of tropical seas, and the great blue shark
(Carcharhinus glaucus syn. Prionace glauca) of all
tropical and temperate seas. The former sometimes
becomes thirty-six feet long, and is the most voracious
and dangerous species known. The rare man-eating shark
of the United States coast (Carcharodon Atwoodi) is
thought by some to be a variety, or the young, of
Carcharodon carcharias. The dusky shark
(Carcharhinus obscurus) is a common species on the
coast of the United States of moderate size and not
dangerous. It feeds on shellfish and bottom fishes.
Note: The original 1913 Webster also mentioned a "smaller
blue shark (C. caudatus)", but this species could not
be found mentioned on the Web (August 2002). The
following is a list of Atlantic Ocean sharks:
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Common and Scientific Names of Atlantic Sharks
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
from "Our Living Oceans 1995" (published by the
National Printing Office):
NMFS. 1999. Our Living Oceans. Report on the status of
U.S. living marine resources, 1999. U.S. Dep. Commer.,
NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-F/SPO-41, on-line version,
(the following list is found at at
(1) Pelagic Sharks
Thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus)
Bigeye thresher (Alopias superciliosus)
Oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus)
Sevengill shark (Heptrachias perlo)
Sixgill shark (Hexanchus griseus)
Bigeye sixgill shark (Hexanchus vitulus)
Shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)
Longfin mako (Isurus paucus)
Porbeagle (Lamna nasus)
Blue shark (Prionace glauca)
(2)Large Coastal Sharks
Sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus)
Reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi)
Blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus)
Dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus)
Spinner shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna)
Silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis)
Bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas)
Bignose shark (Carcharhinus altimus)
Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis)
Night shark (Carcharhinus signatus)
White shark (Carcharodon carcharias)
Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus)
Tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier)
Nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum)
Lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)
Ragged-tooth shark (Odontaspis ferox)
Whale shark (Rhincodon typus)
Scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini)
Great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran)
Smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena)
(3) Small Coastal Sharks
Finetooth shark (Carcharhinus isodon)
Blacknose shark (Carcharhinus acronotus)
Atlantic sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon erraenovae)
Caribbean sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon porosus)
Bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo)
Atlantic angel shark (Squatina dumeril)
2. A rapacious, artful person; a sharper. [Colloq.]
3. Trickery; fraud; petty rapine; as, to live upon the shark.
Basking shark, Liver shark, Nurse shark, Oil shark,
Sand shark, Tiger shark, etc. See under Basking,
Liver, etc. See also Dogfish, Houndfish,
Notidanian, and Tope.
Gray shark, the sand shark.
Hammer-headed shark. See Hammerhead.
Port Jackson shark. See Cestraciont.
Shark barrow, the eggcase of a shark; a sea purse.
Shark ray. Same as Angel fish
(a), under Angel.
Thrasher shark or Thresher shark, a large, voracious
shark. See Thrasher.
Whale shark, a huge harmless shark (Rhinodon typicus) of
the Indian Ocean. It becomes sixty feet or more in length,
but has very small teeth.