The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018):
content addressable memory
(CAM, or "associative memory") A kind of
storage device which includes comparison logic with each bit
of storage. A data value is broadcast to all words of storage
and compared with the values there. Words which match are flagged
in some way. Subsequent operations can then work on flagged
words, e.g. read them out one at a time or write to certain bit
positions in all of them. A CAM can thus operate as a data
parallel (SIMD) processor.
CAMs are often used in caches and memory management units.