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The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Calipers \Cal"i*pers\, n. pl. [Corrupted from caliber.] An instrument, usually resembling a pair of dividers or compasses with curved legs, for measuring the diameter or thickness of bodies, as of work shaped in a lathe or planer, timber, masts, shot, etc.; or the bore of firearms, tubes, etc.; -- called also caliper compasses, or caliber compasses. [1913 Webster] Caliper square, a draughtsman's or mechanic's square, having a graduated bar and adjustable jaw or jaws. --Knight. Vernier calipers. See Vernier. [1913 Webster]