The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Wheel \Wheel\ (hw[=e]l), n. [OE. wheel, hweol, AS. hwe['o]l,
hweogul, hweowol; akin to D. wiel, Icel. hv[=e]l, Gr.
ky`klos, Skr. cakra; cf. Icel. hj[=o]l, Dan. hiul, Sw. hjul.
[root]218. Cf. Cycle, Cyclopedia.]
1. A circular frame turning about an axis; a rotating disk,
whether solid, or a frame composed of an outer rim, spokes
or radii, and a central hub or nave, in which is inserted
the axle, -- used for supporting and conveying vehicles,
in machinery, and for various purposes; as, the wheel of a
wagon, of a locomotive, of a mill, of a watch, etc.
The gasping charioteer beneath the wheel
Of his own car. --Dryden.
2. Any instrument having the form of, or chiefly consisting
of, a wheel. Specifically:
(a) A spinning wheel. See under Spinning.
(b) An instrument of torture formerly used.
His examination is like that which is made by
the rack and wheel. --Addison.
Note: This mode of torture is said to have been first
employed in Germany, in the fourteenth century. The
criminal was laid on a cart wheel with his legs and
arms extended, and his limbs in that posture were
fractured with an iron bar. In France, where its use
was restricted to the most atrocious crimes, the
criminal was first laid on a frame of wood in the form
of a St. Andrew's cross, with grooves cut transversely
in it above and below the knees and elbows, and the
executioner struck eight blows with an iron bar, so as
to break the limbs in those places, sometimes finishing
by two or three blows on the chest or stomach, which
usually put an end to the life of the criminal, and
were hence called coups-de-grace -- blows of mercy. The
criminal was then unbound, and laid on a small wheel,
with his face upward, and his arms and legs doubled
under him, there to expire, if he had survived the
previous treatment. --Brande.
(c) (Naut.) A circular frame having handles on the
periphery, and an axle which is so connected with the
tiller as to form a means of controlling the rudder
for the purpose of steering.
(d) (Pottery) A potter's wheel. See under Potter.
Then I went down to the potter's house, and,
behold, he wrought a work on the wheels. --Jer.
Turn, turn, my wheel! This earthen jar
A touch can make, a touch can mar. --Longfellow.
(e) (Pyrotechny) A firework which, while burning, is
caused to revolve on an axis by the reaction of the
(f) (Poetry) The burden or refrain of a song.
Note: "This meaning has a low degree of authority, but is
supposed from the context in the few cases where the
word is found." --Nares.
You must sing a-down a-down,
An you call him a-down-a.
O, how the wheel becomes it! --Shak.
3. A bicycle or a tricycle; a velocipede.
4. A rolling or revolving body; anything of a circular form;
a disk; an orb. --Milton.
5. A turn revolution; rotation; compass.
According to the common vicissitude and wheel of
things, the proud and the insolent, after long
trampling upon others, come at length to be trampled
upon themselves. --South.
[He] throws his steep flight in many an aery wheel.
A wheel within a wheel, or Wheels within wheels, a
complication of circumstances, motives, etc.
Balance wheel. See in the Vocab.
Bevel wheel, Brake wheel, Cam wheel, Fifth wheel,
Overshot wheel, Spinning wheel, etc. See under Bevel,
Core wheel. (Mach.)
(a) A mortise gear.
(b) A wheel having a rim perforated to receive wooden
cogs; the skeleton of a mortise gear.
Measuring wheel, an odometer, or perambulator.
Wheel and axle (Mech.), one of the elementary machines or
mechanical powers, consisting of a wheel fixed to an axle,
and used for raising great weights, by applying the power
to the circumference of the wheel, and attaching the
weight, by a rope or chain, to that of the axle. Called
also axis in peritrochio, and perpetual lever, -- the
principle of equilibrium involved being the same as in the
lever, while its action is continuous. See Mechanical
powers, under Mechanical.
Wheel animal, or Wheel animalcule (Zool.), any one of
numerous species of rotifers having a ciliated disk at the
Wheel barometer. (Physics) See under Barometer.
Wheel boat, a boat with wheels, to be used either on water
or upon inclined planes or railways.
Wheel bug (Zool.), a large North American hemipterous
insect (Prionidus cristatus) which sucks the blood of
other insects. So named from the curious shape of the
Wheel carriage, a carriage moving on wheels.
Wheel chains, or Wheel ropes (Naut.), the chains or ropes
connecting the wheel and rudder.
Wheel cutter, a machine for shaping the cogs of gear
wheels; a gear cutter.
Wheel horse, one of the horses nearest to the wheels, as
opposed to a leader, or forward horse; -- called also
Wheel lathe, a lathe for turning railway-car wheels.
(a) A letter lock. See under Letter.
(b) A kind of gunlock in which sparks were struck from a
flint, or piece of iron pyrites, by a revolving wheel.
(c) A kind of brake a carriage.
Wheel ore (Min.), a variety of bournonite so named from the
shape of its twin crystals. See Bournonite.
Wheel pit (Steam Engine), a pit in the ground, in which the
lower part of the fly wheel runs.
Wheel plow, or Wheel plough, a plow having one or two
wheels attached, to render it more steady, and to regulate
the depth of the furrow.
Wheel press, a press by which railway-car wheels are forced
on, or off, their axles.
Wheel race, the place in which a water wheel is set.
Wheel rope (Naut.), a tiller rope. See under Tiller.
Wheel stitch (Needlework), a stitch resembling a spider's
web, worked into the material, and not over an open space.
--Caulfeild & S. (Dict. of Needlework).
Wheel tree (Bot.), a tree (Aspidosperma excelsum) of
Guiana, which has a trunk so curiously fluted that a
transverse section resembles the hub and spokes of a
coarsely made wheel. See Paddlewood.
Wheel urchin (Zool.), any sea urchin of the genus Rotula
having a round, flat shell.
Wheel window (Arch.), a circular window having radiating
mullions arranged like the spokes of a wheel. Cf. Rose
window, under Rose.
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Axis \Ax"is\, n.; pl. Axes. [L. axis axis, axle. See Axle.]
A straight line, real or imaginary, passing through a body,
on which it revolves, or may be supposed to revolve; a line
passing through a body or system around which the parts are
2. (Math.) A straight line with respect to which the
different parts of a magnitude are symmetrically arranged;
as, the axis of a cylinder, i. e., the axis of a cone,
that is, the straight line joining the vertex and the
center of the base; the axis of a circle, any straight
line passing through the center.
3. (Bot.) The stem; the central part, or longitudinal
support, on which organs or parts are arranged; the
central line of any body. --Gray.
(a) The second vertebra of the neck, or vertebra
(b) Also used of the body only of the vertebra, which is
prolonged anteriorly within the foramen of the first
vertebra or atlas, so as to form the odontoid process
or peg which serves as a pivot for the atlas and head
to turn upon.
5. (Crystallog.) One of several imaginary lines, assumed in
describing the position of the planes by which a crystal
6. (Fine Arts) The primary or secondary central line of any
Anticlinal axis (Geol.), a line or ridge from which the
strata slope downward on the two opposite sides.
Synclinal axis, a line from which the strata slope upward
in opposite directions, so as to form a valley.
Axis cylinder (Anat.), the neuraxis or essential, central
substance of a nerve fiber; -- called also axis band,
axial fiber, and cylinder axis.
Axis in peritrochio, the wheel and axle, one of the
Axis of a curve (Geom.), a straight line which bisects a
system of parallel chords of a curve; called a principal
axis, when cutting them at right angles, in which case it
divides the curve into two symmetrical portions, as in the
parabola, which has one such axis, the ellipse, which has
two, or the circle, which has an infinite number. The two
axes of the ellipse are the major axis and the minor
axis, and the two axes of the hyperbola are the
transverse axis and the conjugate axis.
Axis of a lens, the straight line passing through its
center and perpendicular to its surfaces.
Axis of a microscope or Axis of a telescope, the straight
line with which coincide the axes of the several lenses
which compose it.
Axes of co["o]rdinates in a plane, two straight lines
intersecting each other, to which points are referred for
the purpose of determining their relative position: they
are either rectangular or oblique.
Axes of co["o]rdinates in space, the three straight lines
in which the co["o]rdinate planes intersect each other.
Axis of a balance, that line about which it turns.
Axis of oscillation, of a pendulum, a right line passing
through the center about which it vibrates, and
perpendicular to the plane of vibration.
Axis of polarization, the central line around which the
prismatic rings or curves are arranged. --Brewster.
Axis of revolution (Descriptive Geom.), a straight line
about which some line or plane is revolved, so that the
several points of the line or plane shall describe circles
with their centers in the fixed line, and their planes
perpendicular to it, the line describing a surface of
revolution, and the plane a solid of revolution.
Axis of symmetry (Geom.), any line in a plane figure which
divides the figure into two such parts that one part, when
folded over along the axis, shall coincide with the other
Axis of the equator, ecliptic, horizon (or other circle
considered with reference to the sphere on which it lies),
the diameter of the sphere which is perpendicular to the
plane of the circle. --Hutton.
Axis of the Ionic capital (Arch.), a line passing
perpendicularly through the middle of the eye of the
Neutral axis (Mech.), the line of demarcation between the
horizontal elastic forces of tension and compression,
exerted by the fibers in any cross section of a girder.
Optic axis of a crystal, the direction in which a ray of
transmitted light suffers no double refraction. All
crystals, not of the isometric system, are either uniaxial
Optic axis, Visual axis (Opt.), the straight line passing
through the center of the pupil, and perpendicular to the
surface of the eye.
Radical axis of two circles (Geom.), the straight line
perpendicular to the line joining their centers and such
that the tangents from any point of it to the two circles
shall be equal to each other.
Spiral axis (Arch.), the axis of a twisted column drawn
spirally in order to trace the circumvolutions without.
Axis of abscissas and Axis of ordinates. See Abscissa.