1. the mathematics of generalized arithmetical operations;

The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Mathematics \Math`e*mat"ics\, n. [F. math['e]matiques, pl., L. mathematica, sing., Gr. ? (sc. ?) science. See Mathematic, and -ics.] That science, or class of sciences, which treats of the exact relations existing between quantities or magnitudes, and of the methods by which, in accordance with these relations, quantities sought are deducible from other quantities known or supposed; the science of spatial and quantitative relations. [1913 Webster] Note: Mathematics embraces three departments, namely: 1. Arithmetic. 2. Geometry, including Trigonometry and Conic Sections. 3. Analysis, in which letters are used, including Algebra, Analytical Geometry, and Calculus. Each of these divisions is divided into pure or abstract, which considers magnitude or quantity abstractly, without relation to matter; and mixed or applied, which treats of magnitude as subsisting in material bodies, and is consequently interwoven with physical considerations. [1913 Webster]The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Algebra \Al"ge*bra\, n. [LL. algebra, fr. Ar. al-jebr reduction of parts to a whole, or fractions to whole numbers, fr. jabara to bind together, consolidate; al-jebr w'almuq[=a]balah reduction and comparison (by equations): cf. F. alg[`e]bre, It. & Sp. algebra.] 1. (Math.) That branch of mathematics which treats of the relations and properties of quantity by means of letters and other symbols. It is applicable to those relations that are true of every kind of magnitude. [1913 Webster] 2. A treatise on this science. [1913 Webster] AlgebraicWordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):

algebra n 1: the mathematics of generalized arithmetical operationsThe Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (18 March 2015):

algebra1. A loose term for an algebraic structure. 2. A vector space that is also a ring, where the vector space and the ring share the same addition operation and are related in certain other ways. An example algebra is the set of 2x2 matrices with real numbers as entries, with the usual operations of addition and matrix multiplication, and the usual scalar multiplication. Another example is the set of all polynomials with real coefficients, with the usual operations. In more detail, we have: (1) an underlying set, (2) a field of scalars, (3) an operation of scalar multiplication, whose input is a scalar and a member of the underlying set and whose output is a member of the underlying set, just as in a vector space, (4) an operation of addition of members of the underlying set, whose input is an ordered pair of such members and whose output is one such member, just as in a vector space or a ring, (5) an operation of multiplication of members of the underlying set, whose input is an ordered pair of such members and whose output is one such member, just as in a ring. This whole thing constitutes an `algebra' iff: (1) it is a vector space if you discard item (5) and (2) it is a ring if you discard (2) and (3) and (3) for any scalar r and any two members A, B of the underlying set we have r(AB) = (rA)B = A(rB). In other words it doesn't matter whether you multiply members of the algebra first and then multiply by the scalar, or multiply one of them by the scalar first and then multiply the two members of the algebra. Note that the A comes before the B because the multiplication is in some cases not commutative, e.g. the matrix example. Another example (an example of a Banach algebra) is the set of all bounded linear operators on a Hilbert space, with the usual norm. The multiplication is the operation of composition of operators, and the addition and scalar multiplication are just what you would expect. Two other examples are tensor algebras and Clifford algebras. [I. N. Herstein, "Topics in Algebra"]. (1999-07-14)