The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Sulphur \Sul"phur\, n. [L., better sulfur: cf. F. soufre.]
1. (Chem.) A nonmetallic element occurring naturally in large
quantities, either combined as in the sulphides (as
pyrites) and sulphates (as gypsum), or native in volcanic
regions, in vast beds mixed with gypsum and various earthy
materials, from which it is melted out. Symbol S. Atomic
weight 32. The specific gravity of ordinary octohedral
sulphur is 2.05; of prismatic sulphur, 1.96.
Note: It is purified by distillation, and is obtained as a
lemon-yellow powder (by sublimation), called flour, or
flowers, of sulphur, or in cast sticks called roll
sulphur, or brimstone. It burns with a blue flame and a
peculiar suffocating odor. It is an ingredient of
gunpowder, is used on friction matches, and in medicine
(as a laxative and insecticide), but its chief use is
in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Sulphur can be
obtained in two crystalline modifications, in
orthorhombic octahedra, or in monoclinic prisms, the
former of which is the more stable at ordinary
temperatures. Sulphur is the type, in its chemical
relations, of a group of elements, including selenium
and tellurium, called collectively the sulphur group,
or family. In many respects sulphur resembles oxygen.
2. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of yellow or orange
butterflies of the subfamily Pierinae; as, the clouded
sulphur (Eurymus philodice syn. Colias philodice),
which is the common yellow butterfly of the Eastern United
Amorphous sulphur (Chem.), an elastic variety of sulphur of
a resinous appearance, obtained by pouring melted sulphur
into water. On standing, it passes back into a brittle
Liver of sulphur. (Old Chem.) See Hepar.
Sulphur acid. (Chem.) See Sulphacid.
Sulphur alcohol. (Chem.) See Mercaptan.
Sulphur auratum [L.] (Old Chem.), a golden yellow powder,
consisting of antimonic sulphide, Sb2S5, -- formerly a
Sulphur base (Chem.), an alkaline sulphide capable of
acting as a base in the formation of sulphur salts
according to the old dual theory of salts. [Archaic]
Sulphur dioxide (Chem.), a colorless gas, SO2, of a
pungent, suffocating odor, produced by the burning of
sulphur. It is employed chiefly in the production of
sulphuric acid, and as a reagent in bleaching; -- called
also sulphurous anhydride, and formerly sulphurous
Sulphur ether (Chem.), a sulphide of hydrocarbon radicals,
formed like the ordinary ethers, which are oxides, but
with sulphur in the place of oxygen.
Sulphur salt (Chem.), a salt of a sulphacid; a sulphosalt.
Sulphur showers, showers of yellow pollen, resembling
sulphur in appearance, often carried from pine forests by
the wind to a great distance.
Sulphur trioxide (Chem.), a white crystalline solid, SO3,
obtained by oxidation of sulphur dioxide. It dissolves in
water with a hissing noise and the production of heat,
forming sulphuric acid, and is employed as a dehydrating
agent. Called also sulphuric anhydride, and formerly
Sulphur whale. (Zool.) See Sulphur-bottom.
Vegetable sulphur (Bot.), lycopodium powder. See under
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Vegetable \Veg`e*ta*ble\, a. [F. v['e]g['e]table growing,
capable of growing, formerly also, as a noun, a vegetable,
from L. vegetabilis enlivening, from vegetare to enliven,
invigorate, quicken, vegetus enlivened, vigorous, active,
vegere to quicken, arouse, to be lively, akin to vigere to be
lively, to thrive, vigil watchful, awake, and probably to E.
wake, v. See Vigil, Wake, v.]
1. Of or pertaining to plants; having the nature of, or
produced by, plants; as, a vegetable nature; vegetable
growths, juices, etc.
Blooming ambrosial fruit
Of vegetable gold. --Milton.
2. Consisting of, or comprising, plants; as, the vegetable
Vegetable alkali (Chem.), an alkaloid.
Vegetable brimstone. (Bot.) See Vegetable sulphur, below.
Vegetable butter (Bot.), a name of several kinds of
concrete vegetable oil; as that produced by the Indian
butter tree, the African shea tree, and the Pentadesma
butyracea, a tree of the order Guttiferae, also
African. Still another kind is pressed from the seeds of
Vegetable flannel, a textile material, manufactured in
Germany from pine-needle wool, a down or fiber obtained
from the leaves of the Pinus sylvestris.
Vegetable ivory. See Ivory nut, under Ivory.
Vegetable jelly. See Pectin.
Vegetable kingdom. (Nat. Hist.) See the last Phrase, below.
(a) (Bot.) A shrubby West Indian spurge (Euphorbia
punicea), with leathery foliage and crimson bracts.
(b) See Vegetable leather, under Leather.
Vegetable marrow (Bot.), an egg-shaped gourd, commonly
eight to ten inches long. It is noted for the very tender
quality of its flesh, and is a favorite culinary vegetable
in England. It has been said to be of Persian origin, but
is now thought to have been derived from a form of the
Vegetable oyster (Bot.), the oyster plant. See under
Vegetable parchment, papyrine.
Vegetable sheep (Bot.), a white woolly plant (Raoulia
eximia) of New Zealand, which grows in the form of large
fleecy cushions on the mountains.
Vegetable silk, a cottonlike, fibrous material obtained
from the coating of the seeds of a Brazilian tree
(Chorisia speciosa). It is used for various purposes, as
for stuffing cushions, and the like, but is incapable of
being spun on account of a want of cohesion among the
Vegetable sponge. See 1st Loof.
Vegetable sulphur, the fine and highly inflammable spores
of the club moss (Lycopodium clavatum); witch meal.
Vegetable tallow, a substance resembling tallow, obtained
from various plants; as, Chinese vegetable tallow,
obtained from the seeds of the tallow tree. Indian
vegetable tallow is a name sometimes given to piney
Vegetable wax, a waxy excretion on the leaves or fruits of
certain plants, as the bayberry.
Vegetable kingdom (Nat. Hist.), that primary division of
living things which includes all plants. The classes of
the vegetable kingdom have been grouped differently by
various botanists. The following is one of the best of the
many arrangements of the principal subdivisions.
[1913 Webster] I. Phaenogamia (called also
Phanerogamia). Plants having distinct flowers and true
seeds. [ 1. Dicotyledons (called also Exogens). --
Seeds with two or more cotyledons. Stems with the pith,
woody fiber, and bark concentrically arranged. Divided
into two subclasses: Angiosperms, having the woody fiber
interspersed with dotted or annular ducts, and the seeds
contained in a true ovary; Gymnosperms, having few or no
ducts in the woody fiber, and the seeds naked. 2.
Monocotyledons (called also Endogens). -- Seeds with
single cotyledon. Stems with slender bundles of woody
fiber not concentrically arranged, and with no true bark.]
[1913 Webster] II. Cryptogamia. Plants without true
flowers, and reproduced by minute spores of various kinds,
or by simple cell division. [ 1. Acrogens. -- Plants
usually with distinct stems and leaves, existing in two
alternate conditions, one of which is nonsexual and
sporophoric, the other sexual and oophoric. Divided into
Vascular Acrogens, or Pteridophyta, having the
sporophoric plant conspicuous and consisting partly of
vascular tissue, as in Ferns, Lycopods, and Equiseta, and
Cellular Acrogens, or Bryophyta, having the sexual
plant most conspicuous, but destitute of vascular tissue,
as in Mosses and Scale Mosses. 2. Thallogens. -- Plants
without distinct stem and leaves, consisting of a simple
or branched mass of cellular tissue, or reduced to a
single cell. Reproduction effected variously. Divided into
Algae, which contain chlorophyll or its equivalent, and
which live upon air and water, and Fungi, which contain
no chlorophyll, and live on organic matter. (Lichens are
now believed to be fungi parasitic on included algae.]
Note: Many botanists divide the Phaenogamia primarily into
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, and the latter into
Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. Others consider
Pteridophyta and Bryophyta to be separate classes.
Thallogens are variously divided by different writers,
and the places for diatoms, slime molds, and stoneworts
are altogether uncertain.
[1913 Webster] For definitions, see these names in the