The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Turpentine \Tur"pen*tine\ (t[^u]r"p[e^]n*t[imac]n), n. [F.
t['e]r['e]benthine, OF. also turbentine; cf. Pr. terebentina,
terbentina, It. terebentina, trementina; fr. L. terebinthinus
of the turpentine tree, from terebinthus the turpentine tree.
Gr. tere`binqos, te`rminqos. See Terebinth.]
A semifluid or fluid oleoresin, primarily the exudation of
the terebinth, or turpentine, tree (Pistacia Terebinthus),
a native of the Mediterranean region. It is also obtained
from many coniferous trees, especially species of pine,
larch, and fir.
Note: There are many varieties of turpentine. Chian
turpentine is produced in small quantities by the
turpentine tree (Pistacia Terebinthus). Venice,
Swiss, or larch turpentine, is obtained from Larix
Europaea. It is a clear, colorless balsam, having a
tendency to solidify. Canada turpentine, or Canada
balsam, is the purest of all the pine turpentines (see
under Balsam). The Carpathian and Hungarian varieties
are derived from Pinus Cembra and Pinus Mugho.
Carolina turpentine, the most abundant kind, comes from
the long-leaved pine (Pinus palustris). Strasburg
turpentine is from the silver fir (Abies pectinata).
Oil of turpentine (Chem.), a colorless oily hydrocarbon,
C10H16, of a pleasant aromatic odor, obtained by the
distillation of crude turpentine. It is used in making
varnishes, in medicine, etc. It is the type of the
terpenes and is related to cymene. Called also
terebenthene, terpene, etc.
Turpentine moth (Zool.), any one of several species of
small tortricid moths whose larvae eat the tender shoots
of pine and fir trees, causing an exudation of pitch or
Turpentine tree (Bot.), the terebinth tree, the original
source of turpentine. See Turpentine, above.