The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Over \O"ver\, adv.
1. From one side to another; from side to side; across;
crosswise; as, a board, or a tree, a foot over, i. e., a
foot in diameter.
2. From one person or place to another regarded as on the
opposite side of a space or barrier; -- used with verbs of
motion; as, to sail over to England; to hand over the
money; to go over to the enemy. "We will pass over to
Gibeah." --Judges xix. 12. Also, with verbs of being: At,
or on, the opposite side; as, the boat is over.
3. From beginning to end; throughout the course, extent, or
expanse of anything; as, to look over accounts, or a stock
of goods; a dress covered over with jewels.
4. From inside to outside, above or across the brim.
Good measure, pressed down . . . and running over.
--Luke vi. 38.
5. Beyond a limit; hence, in excessive degree or quantity;
superfluously; with repetition; as, to do the whole work
over. "So over violent." --Dryden.
He that gathered much had nothing over. --Ex. xvi.
6. In a manner to bring the under side to or towards the top;
as, to turn (one's self) over; to roll a stone over; to
turn over the leaves; to tip over a cart.
7. Completed; at an end; beyond the limit of continuance;
finished; as, when will the play be over?. "Their distress
was over." --Macaulay. "The feast was over." --Sir W.
Note: Over, out, off, and similar adverbs, are often used in
the predicate with the sense and force of adjectives,
agreeing in this respect with the adverbs of place,
here, there, everywhere, nowhere; as, the games were
over; the play is over; the master was out; his hat is
Note: Over is much used in composition, with the same
significations that it has as a separate word; as in
overcast, overflow, to cast or flow so as to spread
over or cover; overhang, to hang above; overturn, to
turn so as to bring the underside towards the top;
overact, overreach, to act or reach beyond, implying
excess or superiority.
(a) Over the whole; upon all parts; completely; as, he is
spatterd with mud all over.
(b) Wholly over; at an end; as, it is all over with him.
Over again, once more; with repetition; afresh; anew.
Over against, opposite; in front. --Addison.
Over and above, in a manner, or degree, beyond what is
supposed, defined, or usual; besides; in addition; as, not
over and above well. "He . . . gained, over and above, the
good will of all people." --L' Estrange.
Over and over, repeatedly; again and again.
To boil over. See under Boil, v. i.
To come it over, To do over, To give over, etc. See
under Come, Do, Give, etc.
To throw over, to abandon; to betray. Cf. To throw
overboard, under Overboard.
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
do \do\ (d[=oo]), v. t. or auxiliary. [imp. did (d[i^]d); p.
p. done (d[u^]n); p. pr. & vb. n. Doing (d[=oo]"[i^]ng).
This verb, when transitive, is formed in the indicative,
present tense, thus: I do, thou doest (d[=oo]"[e^]st) or dost
(d[u^]st), he does (d[u^]z), doeth (d[=oo]"[e^]th), or doth
(d[u^]th); when auxiliary, the second person is, thou dost.
As an independent verb, dost is obsolete or rare, except in
poetry. "What dost thou in this world?" --Milton. The form
doeth is a verb unlimited, doth, formerly so used, now being
the auxiliary form. The second pers, sing., imperfect tense,
is didst (d[i^]dst), formerly didest (d[i^]d"[e^]st).] [AS.
d[=o]n; akin to D. doen, OS. duan, OHG. tuon, G. thun, Lith.
deti, OSlav. d[=e]ti, OIr. d['e]nim I do, Gr. tiqe`nai to
put, Skr. dh[=a], and to E. suffix -dom, and prob. to L.
facere to do, E. fact, and perh. to L. -dere in some
compounds, as addere to add, credere to trust. [root]65. Cf.
Deed, Deem, Doom, Fact, Creed, Theme.]
1. To place; to put. [Obs.] --Tale of a Usurer (about 1330).
2. To cause; to make; -- with an infinitive. [Obs.]
My lord Abbot of Westminster did do shewe to me late
certain evidences. --W. Caxton.
I shall . . . your cloister do make. --Piers
A fatal plague which many did to die. --Spenser.
We do you to wit [i. e., We make you to know] of the
grace of God bestowed on the churches of Macedonia.
--2 Cor. viii.
Note: We have lost the idiom shown by the citations (do used
like the French faire or laisser), in which the verb in
the infinitive apparently, but not really, has a
passive signification, i. e., cause . . . to be made.
3. To bring about; to produce, as an effect or result; to
effect; to achieve.
The neglecting it may do much danger. --Shak.
He waved indifferently 'twixt doing them neither
good not harm. --Shak.
4. To perform, as an action; to execute; to transact to carry
out in action; as, to do a good or a bad act; do our duty;
to do what I can.
Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work. --Ex.
We did not do these things. --Ld. Lytton.
You can not do wrong without suffering wrong.
Hence: To do homage, honor, favor, justice, etc., to
render homage, honor, etc.
5. To bring to an end by action; to perform completely; to
finish; to accomplish; -- a sense conveyed by the
construction, which is that of the past participle done.
"Ere summer half be done." "I have done weeping." --Shak.
6. To make ready for an object, purpose, or use, as food by
cooking; to cook completely or sufficiently; as, the meat
is done on one side only.
7. To put or bring into a form, state, or condition,
especially in the phrases, to do death, to put to death;
to slay; to do away (often do away with), to put away; to
remove; to do on, to put on; to don; to do off, to take
off, as dress; to doff; to do into, to put into the form
of; to translate or transform into, as a text.
Done to death by slanderous tongues. -- Shak.
The ground of the difficulty is done away. -- Paley.
Suspicions regarding his loyalty were entirely done
To do on our own harness, that we may not; but we
must do on the armor of God. -- Latimer.
Then Jason rose and did on him a fair
Blue woolen tunic. -- W. Morris
Though the former legal pollution be now done off,
yet there is a spiritual contagion in idolatry as
much to be shunned. --Milton.
It ["Pilgrim's Progress"] has been done into verse:
it has been done into modern English. -- Macaulay.
8. To cheat; to gull; to overreach. [Colloq.]
He was not be done, at his time of life, by
frivolous offers of a compromise that might have
secured him seventy-five per cent. -- De Quincey.
9. To see or inspect; to explore; as, to do all the points of
10. (Stock Exchange) To cash or to advance money for, as a
bill or note.
11. To perform work upon, about, for, or at, by way of caring
for, looking after, preparing, cleaning, keeping in
order, or the like.
The sergeants seem to do themselves pretty well.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]
12. To deal with for good and all; to finish up; to undo; to
ruin; to do for. [Colloq. or Slang]
Sometimes they lie in wait in these dark streets,
and fracture his skull, . . . or break his arm, or
cut the sinew of his wrist; and that they call
doing him. --Charles
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]
(a) Do and did are much employed as auxiliaries, the verb
to which they are joined being an infinitive. As an
auxiliary the verb do has no participle. "I do set my
bow in the cloud." --Gen. ix. 13. [Now archaic or
rare except for emphatic assertion.]
Rarely . . . did the wrongs of individuals to
the knowledge of the public. -- Macaulay.
(b) They are often used in emphatic construction. "You
don't say so, Mr. Jobson. -- but I do say so." --Sir
W. Scott. "I did love him, but scorn him now."
(c) In negative and interrogative constructions, do and
did are in common use. I do not wish to see them;
what do you think? Did C[ae]sar cross the Tiber? He
did not. "Do you love me?" --Shak.
(d) Do, as an auxiliary, is supposed to have been first
used before imperatives. It expresses entreaty or
earnest request; as, do help me. In the imperative
mood, but not in the indicative, it may be used with
the verb to be; as, do be quiet. Do, did, and done
often stand as a general substitute or representative
verb, and thus save the repetition of the principal
verb. "To live and die is all we have to do."
--Denham. In the case of do and did as auxiliaries,
the sense may be completed by the infinitive (without
to) of the verb represented. "When beauty lived and
died as flowers do now." --Shak. "I . . . chose my
wife as she did her wedding gown." --Goldsmith.
My brightest hopes giving dark fears a being.
As the light does the shadow. -- Longfellow.
In unemphatic affirmative sentences do is, for the
most part, archaic or poetical; as, "This just
reproach their virtue does excite." --Dryden.
To do one's best, To do one's diligence (and the like),
to exert one's self; to put forth one's best or most or
most diligent efforts. "We will . . . do our best to gain
their assent." --Jowett (Thucyd.).
To do one's business, to ruin one. [Colloq.] --Wycherley.
To do one shame, to cause one shame. [Obs.]
To do over.
(a) To make over; to perform a second time.
(b) To cover; to spread; to smear. "Boats . . . sewed
together and done over with a kind of slimy stuff
like rosin." --De Foe.
To do to death, to put to death. (See 7.) [Obs.]
To do up.
(a) To put up; to raise. [Obs.] --Chaucer.
(b) To pack together and envelop; to pack up.
(c) To accomplish thoroughly. [Colloq.]
(d) To starch and iron. "A rich gown of velvet, and a
ruff done up with the famous yellow starch."
To do way, to put away; to lay aside. [Obs.] --Chaucer.
To do with, to dispose of; to make use of; to employ; --
usually preceded by what. "Men are many times brought to
that extremity, that were it not for God they would not
know what to do with themselves." --Tillotson.
To have to do with, to have concern, business or
intercourse with; to deal with. When preceded by what, the
notion is usually implied that the affair does not concern
the person denoted by the subject of have. "Philology has
to do with language in its fullest sense." --Earle. "What
have I to do with you, ye sons of Zeruiah?" --2 Sam. xvi.