The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Potato \Po*ta"to\, n.; pl. Potatoes. [Sp. patata potato,
batata sweet potato, from the native American name (probably
batata) in Hayti.] (Bot.)
(a) A plant (Solanum tuberosum) of the Nightshade
family, and its esculent farinaceous tuber, of which
there are numerous varieties used for food. It is
native of South America, but a form of the species is
found native as far north as New Mexico.
(b) The sweet potato (see below).
Potato beetle, Potato bug. (Zool.)
(a) A beetle (Doryphora decemlineata) which feeds, both
in the larval and adult stages, upon the leaves of the
potato, often doing great damage. Called also
Colorado potato beetle, and Doryphora. See
(b) The Lema trilineata, a smaller and more slender
striped beetle which feeds upon the potato plant, bur
does less injury than the preceding species.
Potato fly (Zool.), any one of several species of blister
beetles infesting the potato vine. The black species
(Lytta atrata), the striped (Lytta vittata), and the
gray (Lytta Fabricii syn. Lytta cinerea) are the most
common. See Blister beetle, under Blister.
Potato rot, a disease of the tubers of the potato, supposed
to be caused by a kind of mold (Peronospora infestans),
which is first seen upon the leaves and stems.
Potato weevil (Zool.), an American weevil (Baridius
trinotatus) whose larva lives in and kills the stalks of
potato vines, often causing serious damage to the crop.
Potato whisky, a strong, fiery liquor, having a hot, smoky
taste, and rich in amyl alcohol (fusel oil); it is made
from potatoes or potato starch.
Potato worm (Zool.), the large green larva of a sphinx, or
hawk moth (Macrosila quinquemaculata); -- called also
tomato worm. See Illust. under Tomato.
Seaside potato (Bot.), Ipom[oe]a Pes-Capr[ae], a kind of
morning-glory with rounded and emarginate or bilobed
leaves. [West Indies]
Sweet potato (Bot.), a climbing plant (Ipom[oe]a Balatas)
allied to the morning-glory. Its farinaceous tubers have a
sweetish taste, and are used, when cooked, for food. It is
probably a native of Brazil, but is cultivated extensively
in the warmer parts of every continent, and even as far
north as New Jersey. The name potato was applied to this
plant before it was to the Solanum tuberosum, and this
is the "potato" of the Southern United States.
Wild potato. (Bot.)
(a) A vine (Ipom[oe]a pandurata) having a pale purplish
flower and an enormous root. It is common in sandy
places in the United States.
(b) A similar tropical American plant (Ipom[oe]a
fastigiata) which it is thought may have been the
original stock of the sweet potato.