[syn: machine code, machine language]
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Language \Lan"guage\, n. [OE. langage, F. langage, fr. L. lingua
the tongue, hence speech, language; akin to E. tongue. See
Tongue, cf. Lingual.]
1. Any means of conveying or communicating ideas;
specifically, human speech; the expression of ideas by the
voice; sounds, expressive of thought, articulated by the
organs of the throat and mouth.
Note: Language consists in the oral utterance of sounds which
usage has made the representatives of ideas. When two
or more persons customarily annex the same sounds to
the same ideas, the expression of these sounds by one
person communicates his ideas to another. This is the
primary sense of language, the use of which is to
communicate the thoughts of one person to another
through the organs of hearing. Articulate sounds are
represented to the eye by letters, marks, or
characters, which form words.
2. The expression of ideas by writing, or any other
3. The forms of speech, or the methods of expressing ideas,
peculiar to a particular nation.
4. The characteristic mode of arranging words, peculiar to an
individual speaker or writer; manner of expression; style.
Others for language all their care express. --Pope.
5. The inarticulate sounds by which animals inferior to man
express their feelings or their wants.
6. The suggestion, by objects, actions, or conditions, of
ideas associated therewith; as, the language of flowers.
There was . . . language in their very gesture.
7. The vocabulary and phraseology belonging to an art or
department of knowledge; as, medical language; the
language of chemistry or theology.
8. A race, as distinguished by its speech. [R.]
All the people, the nations, and the languages, fell
down and worshiped the golden image. --Dan. iii. 7.
9. Any system of symbols created for the purpose of
communicating ideas, emotions, commands, etc., between
10. Specifically: (computers) Any set of symbols and the
rules for combining them which are used to specify to a
computer the actions that it is to take; also referred to
as a computer lanugage or programming language; as,
JAVA is a new and flexible high-level language which has
achieved popularity very rapidly.
Note: Computer languages are classed a low-level if each
instruction specifies only one operation of the
computer, or high-level if each instruction may specify
a complex combination of operations. Machine language
and assembly language are low-level computer
languages. FORTRAN, COBOL and C are high-level
computer languages. Other computer languages, such as
JAVA, allow even more complex combinations of low-level
operations to be performed with a single command. Many
programs, such as databases, are supplied with special
languages adapted to manipulate the objects of concern
for that specific program. These are also high-level
Language master, a teacher of languages. [Obs.]
Syn: Speech; tongue; idiom; dialect; phraseology; diction;
discourse; conversation; talk.
Usage: Language, Speech, Tongue, Idiom, Dialect.
Language is generic, denoting, in its most extended
use, any mode of conveying ideas; speech is the
language of articulate sounds; tongue is the
Anglo-Saxon term for language, esp. for spoken
language; as, the English tongue. Idiom denotes the
forms of construction peculiar to a particular
language; dialects are varieties of expression which
spring up in different parts of a country among people
speaking substantially the same language.
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
machine language \machine language\ n. (Computers)
a set of instructions in a binary form that can be
executed directly by the CPU of a computer without
translation by a computer program.
Syn: machine code, binary code.
[WordNet 1.5 +PJC] machinelike
WordNet (r) 3.0 (2006):
n 1: a programming language designed for use on a specific class
of computers [syn: computer language, computer-oriented
language, machine language, machine-oriented language]
2: a set of instructions coded so that the computer can use it
directly without further translation [syn: machine code,
The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (30 December 2018):
The representation of a computer program that is
read and interpreted by the computer hardware (rather than by
some other machine code program). A program in machine code
consists of a sequence of "instructions" (possibly
interspersed with data). An instruction is a binary string,
(often written as one or more octal, decimal or
hexadecimal numbers). Instructions may be all the same size
(e.g. one 32-bit word for many modern RISC
microprocessors) or of different sizes, in which case the
size of the instruction is determined from the first word
(e.g. Motorola 68000) or byte (e.g. Inmos
transputer). The collection of all possible instructions
for a particular computer is known as its "instruction set".
Each instruction typically causes the Central Processing
Unit to perform some fairly simple operation like loading a
value from memory into a register or adding the numbers in
two registers. An instruction consists of an op code and
zero or more operands. Different processors have different
instruction sets - the collection of possible operations
they can perform.
Execution of machine code may either be hard-wired into the
central processing unit or it may be controlled by
microcode. The basic execution cycle consists of fetching
the next instruction from main memory, decoding it
(determining which action the operation code specifies and
the location of any arguments) and executing it by opening
various gates (e.g. to allow data to flow from main memory
into a CPU register) and enabling functional units
(e.g. signalling to the ALU to perform an addition).
Humans almost never write programs directly in machine code.
Instead, they use programming languages. The simplest kind
of programming language is assembly language which usually
has a one-to-one correspondence with the resulting machine
code instructions but allows the use of mnemonics (ASCII
strings) for the "op codes" (the part of the instruction
which encodes the basic type of operation to perform) and
names for locations in the program (branch labels) and for
variables and constants. Other languages are either
translated by a compiler into machine code or executed by an