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CIA World Factbook 2002:

Mali Introduction Mali ----------------- Background: The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 with a transitional government, and in 1992 when Mali's first democratic presidential election was held. Since his reelection in 1997, President KONARE continued to push through political and economic reforms and to fight corruption. In 1999 he indicated he would not run for a third term, in keeping with the Malian constitution's two-term limit. Geography Mali -------------- Location: Western Africa, southwest of Algeria Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W Map references: Africa Area: total: 1.24 million sq km water: 20,000 sq km land: 1.22 million sq km Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Texas Land boundaries: total: 7,243 km border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) Maritime claims: none (landlocked) Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast Elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, hydropower note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited Land use: arable land: 3.77% permanent crops: 0.04% other: 96.19% (1998 est.) Irrigated land: 1,380 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding Environment - current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate agreements: Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Nuclear Test Ban Geography - note: landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan People Mali ----------- Population: 11,340,480 (July 2002 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.2% (male 2,687,998; female 2,658,605) 15-64 years: 49.8% (male 2,698,789; female 2,950,276) 65 years and over: 3% (male 160,604; female 184,208) (2002 est.) Population growth rate: 2.97% (2002 est.) Birth rate: 48.37 births/1,000 population (2002 est.) Death rate: 18.32 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.) Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/ female total population: 0.96 male(s)/ female (2002 est.) Infant mortality rate: 119.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 47.39 years female: 48.64 years (2002 est.) male: 46.18 years Total fertility rate: 6.73 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.7% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 140,000 (2001 est.) AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: 9,900 (1999 est.) Nationality: noun: Malian(s) adjective: Malian Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5% Religions: Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1% Languages: French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 38% male: 45% female: 31% (1998 est.) Government Mali --------------- Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali conventional short form: Mali local short form: Mali former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic local long form: Republique de Mali Government type: republic Capital: Bamako Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France) National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September (1960) Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992 Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court (which was formally established on 9 March 1994); has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002) head of government: Prime Minister Modibo KEITA (since 18 March 2002) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (two-term limit); election last held 12 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2007); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE elected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 64.4%, Soumaila CISSE 35.6% Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 20 July and 3 August 1997 (next to be held NA July 2002); note - much of the opposition boycotted the election election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - ADEMA 95, RPM 35, PARENA 8, CDS 4, UDD 3, PDP 2 Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda Traore KEITA, party chairman]; Block of Alternative for the Renewal of Africa or BARA [Yoro DIAKITE]; Democratic and Social Convention or CDS [Mamadou Bakary SANGARE, chairman]; Movement for the Independence, Renaissance and Integration of Africa or MIRIA [Mohamed Lamine TRAORE, Mouhamedou DICKO]; National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL, chairman]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Yoro DIAKITE, chairman; Tiebile DRAME, secretary general]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Ali GNANGADO]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Almamy SYLLA, chairman]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Bonbasor KEITA, chairman]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE, secretary general]; Union of Democratic Forces for Progress or UFDP [Youssouf TOURE, secretary general]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY] Political pressure groups and Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda leaders: Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, participation: FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (subscriber), ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Cheick Oumar DIARRAH FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603 telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939- 8950 chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Michael US: E. RANNEBERGER embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako telephone: [223] 22 54 70 FAX: [223] 22 37 12 Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia Economy Mali ------------ Economy - overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 70% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export. In 1997, the government continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the African franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2000. In 2001, GDP decreased by 1.2% mainly due to a 50% drop in cotton production in 2000-01. GDP: purchasing power parity - $9.2 billion (2001 est.) GDP - real growth rate: -1.2% (2001 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $840 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 45% industry: 17% services: 38% (2001 est.) Population below poverty line: 64% average; 30% of the total population living in urban areas; 76% of the total population living in rural areas) (2001 est.) Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: 1.8% percentage share: highest 10%: 40.4% (1994) Distribution of family income - Gini 50.5 (1994) index: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (2001 est.) Labor force: 3.93 million (2001 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture and fishing 80% (2001 est.) Unemployment rate: 14.6% urban areas; 5.3% rural areas (2001 est.) Budget: revenues: $764 million expenditures: $828 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.) Industries: food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining Industrial production growth rate: NA Electricity - production: 462 million kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 43.29% hydro: 56.71% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 429.66 million kWh (2000) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000) Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats Exports: $575 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Exports - commodities: cotton 43%, gold 40%, livestock (2001 est.) Exports - partners: Brazil 10.6%, South Korea 9.9%, Italy 7.3%, Canada 7% (2000) Imports: $600 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, construction materials, petroleum, foodstuffs, textiles Imports - partners: Cote d'Ivoire 21%, France 12.4%, Senegal 4%, Germany 4%, Benelux (2000) Debt - external: $3.3 billion (2000) Economic aid - recipient: $596.4 million (2001) Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States Currency code: XOF Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 742.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Mali ------------------- Telephones - main lines in use: 45,000 (2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: 40,000 (2001) Telephone system: general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1 note: the shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International (2001) Radios: 570,000 (1997) Television broadcast stations: 1 (plus repeaters) (2001) Televisions: 45,000 (1997) Internet country code: .ml Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 13 (2001) Internet users: 10,000 (2000) Transportation Mali ------------------- Railways: total: 729 km narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge note: linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes (2001) Highways: total: 15,100 km paved: 1,827 km unpaved: 13,273 km (1996) Waterways: 1,815 km Ports and harbors: Koulikoro Airports: 27 (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 7 2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 20 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 7 under 914 m: 9 (2001) Military Mali ------------- Military branches: Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National Police (Surete Nationale) Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 2,369,578 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 1,358,646 (2002 service: est.) Military expenditures - dollar $50 million (FY01) figure: Military expenditures - percent of 2% (FY01) GDP: Transnational Issues Mali ------------------------- Disputes - international: none