The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Barnyard grass, for hay. South. Panicum Grus-galli. Bent,
pasture and hay. Agrostis, several species. Bermuda grass,
pasture. South. Cynodon Dactylon. Black bent. Same as Switch
grass (below). Blue bent, hay. North and West. Andropogon
provincialis. Blue grass, pasture. Poa compressa. Blue joint,
hay. Northwest. Aqropyrum glaucum. Buffalo grass, grazing.
Rocky Mts., etc.
(a) Buchlo["e] dectyloides.
(b) Same as Grama grass (below). Bunch grass, grazing.
Far West. Eriocoma, Festuca, Stips, etc. Chess,
or Cheat, a weed. Bromus secalinus, etc. Couch
grass. Same as Quick grass (below). Crab grass,
(a) Hay, in South. A weed, in North. Panicum sanguinale.
(b) Pasture and hay. South. Eleusine Indica. Darnel
(a) Bearded, a noxious weed. Lolium temulentum.
(b) Common. Same as Rye grass (below). Drop seed, fair
for forage and hay. Muhlenbergia, several species.
English grass. Same as Redtop (below). Fowl meadow
(a) Pasture and hay. Poa serotina.
(b) Hay, on moist land. Gryceria nervata. Gama grass,
cut fodder. South. Tripsacum dactyloides. Grama
grass, grazing. West and Pacific slope. Bouteloua
oligostachya, etc. Great bunch grass, pasture and
hay. Far West. Festuca scabrella. Guinea grass, hay.
South. Panicum jumentorum. Herd's grass, in New
England Timothy, in Pennsylvania and South Redtop.
Indian grass. Same as Wood grass (below). Italian
rye grass, forage and hay. Lolium Italicum. Johnson
grass, grazing and hay. South and Southwest. Sorghum
Halepense. Kentucky blue grass, pasture. Poa
pratensis. Lyme grass, coarse hay. South. Elymus,
several species. Manna grass, pasture and hay.
Glyceria, several species. Meadow fescue, pasture
and hay. Festuca elatior. Meadow foxtail, pasture,
hay, lawn. North. Alopecurus pratensis. Meadow
grass, pasture, hay, lawn. Poa, several species.
Mesquite grass, or Muskit grass. Same as Grama grass
(above). Nimble Will, a kind of drop seed.
Muhlenbergia diffsa. Orchard grass, pasture and hay.
Dactylis glomerata. Porcupine grass, troublesome to
sheep. Northwest. Stipa spartea. Quaking grass,
ornamental. Briza media and maxima. Quitch, or
Quick, grass, etc., a weed. Agropyrum repens. Ray
grass. Same as Rye grass (below). Redtop, pasture
and hay. Agrostis vulgaris. Red-topped buffalo
grass, forage. Northwest. Poa tenuifolia. Reed
canary grass, of slight value. Phalaris arundinacea.
Reed meadow grass, hay. North. Glyceria aquatica.
Ribbon grass, a striped leaved form of Reed canary
grass. Rye grass, pasture, hay. Lolium perenne,
var. Seneca grass, fragrant basket work, etc. North.
Hierochloa borealis. Sesame grass. Same as Gama
grass (above). Sheep's fescue, sheep pasture, native
in Northern Europe and Asia. Festuca ovina. Small
reed grass, meadow pasture and hay. North. Deyeuxia
Canadensis. Spear grass, Same as Meadow grass
(above). Squirrel-tail grass, troublesome to animals.
Seacoast and Northwest. Hordeum jubatum. Switch
grass, hay, cut young. Panicum virgatum. Timothy,
cut young, the best of hay. North. Phleum pratense.
Velvet grass, hay on poor soil. South. Holcus
lanatus. Vernal grass, pasture, hay, lawn.
Anthoxanthum odoratum. Wire grass, valuable in
pastures. Poa compressa. Wood grass, Indian grass,
hay. Chrysopogon nutans.
Note: Many plants are popularly called grasses which are not
true grasses botanically considered, such as black
grass, goose grass, star grass, etc.
Black grass, a kind of small rush (Juncus Gerardi),
growing in salt marshes, used for making salt hay.
Grass of the Andes, an oat grass, the Arrhenatherum
avenaceum of Europe.
Grass of Parnassus, a plant of the genus Parnassia
growing in wet ground. The European species is Parnassia
palustris; in the United States there are several
Grass bass (Zool.), the calico bass.
Grass bird, the dunlin.
Grass cloth, a cloth woven from the tough fibers of the
Grass-cloth plant, a perennial herb of the Nettle family
(B[oe]hmeria nivea syn. Urtica nivea), which grows in
Sumatra, China, and Assam, whose inner bark has fine and
strong fibers suited for textile purposes.
Grass finch. (Zool.)
(a) A common American sparrow (Po["o]c[ae]tes
gramineus); -- called also vesper sparrow and
(b) Any Australian finch, of the genus Po["e]phila, of
which several species are known.
Grass lamb, a lamb suckled by a dam running on pasture land
and giving rich milk.
Grass land, land kept in grass and not tilled.
Grass moth (Zool.), one of many small moths of the genus
Crambus, found in grass.
Grass oil, a fragrant essential volatile oil, obtained in
India from grasses of the genus Andropogon, etc.; --
used in perfumery under the name of citronella, ginger
grass oil, lemon grass oil, essence of verbena etc.
Grass owl (Zool.), a South African owl (Strix Capensis).
Grass parrakeet (Zool.), any of several species of
Australian parrots, of the genus Euphemia; -- also
applied to the zebra parrakeet.
Grass plover (Zool.), the upland or field plover.
Grass poly (Bot.), a species of willowwort (Lythrum
Crass quit (Zool.), one of several tropical American
finches of the genus Euetheia. The males have most of
the head and chest black and often marked with yellow.
Grass snake. (Zool.)
(a) The common English, or ringed, snake (Tropidonotus
(b) The common green snake of the Northern United States.
See Green snake, under Green.
Grass snipe (Zool.), the pectoral sandpiper (Tringa
maculata); -- called also jacksnipe in America.
Grass spider (Zool.), a common spider (Agelena n[ae]via),
which spins flat webs on grass, conspicuous when covered
Grass sponge (Zool.), an inferior kind of commercial sponge
from Florida and the Bahamas.
Grass table. (Arch.) See Earth table, under Earth.
Grass vetch (Bot.), a vetch (Lathyrus Nissolia), with
narrow grasslike leaves.
Grass widow. [Cf. Prov. R. an unmarried mother, G.
strohwittwe a mock widow, Sw. gr[aum]senka a grass widow.]
(a) An unmarried woman who is a mother. [Obs.]
(b) A woman separated from her husband by abandonment or
prolonged absence; a woman living apart from her
Grass wrack (Bot.) eelgrass.
To bring to grass (Mining.), to raise, as ore, to the
surface of the ground.
To put to grass, To put out to grass, to put out to graze
a season, as cattle.
The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Sponge \Sponge\ (sp[u^]nj), n. [OF. esponge, F. ['e]ponge, L.
spongia, Gr. spoggia`, spo`ggos. Cf. Fungus, Spunk.]
[Formerly written also spunge.]
1. (Zool.) Any one of numerous species of Spongiae, or
Porifera. See Illust. and Note under Spongiae.
2. The elastic fibrous skeleton of many species of horny
Spongiae (Keratosa), used for many purposes, especially
the varieties of the genus Spongia. The most valuable
sponges are found in the Mediterranean and the Red Sea,
and on the coasts of Florida and the West Indies.
3. Fig.: One who lives upon others; a pertinacious and
indolent dependent; a parasite; a sponger.
4. Any spongelike substance. Specifically:
(a) Dough before it is kneaded and formed into loaves, and
after it is converted into a light, spongy mass by the
agency of the yeast or leaven.
(b) Iron from the puddling furnace, in a pasty condition.
(c) Iron ore, in masses, reduced but not melted or worked.
5. (Gun.) A mop for cleaning the bore of a cannon after a
discharge. It consists of a cylinder of wood, covered with
sheepskin with the wool on, or cloth with a heavy looped
nap, and having a handle, or staff.
6. (Far.) The extremity, or point, of a horseshoe, answering
to the heel.
Bath sponge, any one of several varieties of coarse
commercial sponges, especially Spongia equina.
Cup sponge, a toilet sponge growing in a cup-shaped form.
Glass sponge. See Glass-sponge, in the Vocabulary.
Glove sponge, a variety of commercial sponge (Spongia
officinalis, variety tubulifera), having very fine
fibers, native of Florida, and the West Indies.
Grass sponge, any one of several varieties of coarse
commercial sponges having the surface irregularly tufted,
as Spongia graminea, and Spongia equina, variety
cerebriformis, of Florida and the West Indies.
Horse sponge, a coarse commercial sponge, especially
Platinum sponge. (Chem.) See under Platinum.
Pyrotechnical sponge, a substance made of mushrooms or
fungi, which are boiled in water, dried, and beaten, then
put in a strong lye prepared with saltpeter, and again
dried in an oven. This makes the black match, or tinder,
brought from Germany.
Sheep's-wool sponge, a fine and durable commercial sponge
(Spongia equina, variety gossypina) found in Florida and
the West Indies. The surface is covered with larger and
smaller tufts, having the oscula between them.
Sponge cake, a kind of sweet cake which is light and
Sponge lead, or Spongy lead (Chem.), metallic lead
brought to a spongy form by reduction of lead salts, or by
compressing finely divided lead; -- used in secondary
batteries and otherwise.
Sponge tree (Bot.), a tropical leguminous tree (Acacia
Farnesiana), with deliciously fragrant flowers, which are
used in perfumery.
Toilet sponge, a very fine and superior variety of
Mediterranean sponge (Spongia officinalis, variety
Mediterranea); -- called also Turkish sponge.
To set a sponge (Cookery), to leaven a small mass of flour,
to be used in leavening a larger quantity.
To throw up the sponge, to give up a contest; to
acknowledge defeat; -- from a custom of the prize ring,
the person employed to sponge a pugilist between rounds
throwing his sponge in the air in token of defeat; -- now,
throw in the towel is more common, and has the same
origin and meaning. [Cant or Slang] "He was too brave a
man to throw up the sponge to fate." --Lowell.
Vegetable sponge. (Bot.) See Loof.
Velvet sponge, a fine, soft commercial sponge (Spongia
equina, variety meandriniformis) found in Florida and the
Vitreous sponge. See Glass-sponge.
Yellow sponge, a common and valuable commercial sponge
(Spongia agaricina, variety corlosia) found in Florida
and the West Indies.