The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:
Challenge \Chal"lenge\, n. [OE. chalenge claim, accusation,
challenge, OF. chalenge, chalonge, claim, accusation,
contest, fr. L. calumnia false accusation, chicanery. See
1. An invitation to engage in a contest or controversy of any
kind; a defiance; specifically, a summons to fight a duel;
also, the letter or message conveying the summons.
A challenge to controversy. --Goldsmith.
2. The act of a sentry in halting any one who appears at his
post, and demanding the countersign.
3. A claim or demand. [Obs.]
There must be no challenge of superiority.
4. (Hunting) The opening and crying of hounds at first
finding the scent of their game.
5. (Law) An exception to a juror or to a member of a court
martial, coupled with a demand that he should be held
incompetent to act; the claim of a party that a certain
person or persons shall not sit in trial upon him or his
6. An exception to a person as not legally qualified to vote.
The challenge must be made when the ballot is offered. [U.
Challenge to the array (Law), an exception to the whole
Challenge to the favor, the alleging a special cause, the
sufficiency of which is to be left to those whose duty and
office it is to decide upon it.
Challenge to the polls, an exception taken to any one or
more of the individual jurors returned.
Peremptory challenge, a privilege sometimes allowed to
defendants, of challenging a certain number of jurors
(fixed by statute in different States) without assigning
Principal challenge, that which the law allows to be
sufficient if found to be true.