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The Collaborative International Dictionary of English v.0.48:

Ashes \Ash"es\, n. pl. [OE. asche, aske, AS. asce, [ae]sce, axe; akin to OHG. asca, G. asche, D. asch, Icel. & Sw. aska, Dan. aske, Goth. azgo.] 1. The earthy or mineral particles of combustible substances remaining after combustion, as of wood or coal. [1913 Webster] 2. Specifically: The remains of the human body when burnt, or when "returned to dust" by natural decay. [1913 Webster] Their martyred blood and ashes sow. --Milton. [1913 Webster] The coffins were broken open. The ashes were scattered to the winds. --Macaulay. [1913 Webster] 3. The color of ashes; deathlike paleness. [1913 Webster] The lip of ashes, and the cheek of flame. --Byron. [1913 Webster] In dust and ashes, In sackcloth and ashes, with humble expression of grief or repentance; -- from the method of mourning in Eastern lands. Volcanic ashes, or Volcanic ash, the loose, earthy matter, or small fragments of stone or lava, ejected by volcanoes. [1913 Webster]
Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0:

57 Moby Thesaurus words for "ashes": ash, body, bones, brand, cadaver, calx, carbon, carcass, carrion, charcoal, cinder, cinders, clay, clinker, clinkers, coal, coke, coom, corpse, corpus delicti, crowbait, dead body, dead man, dead person, decedent, dross, dry bones, dust, earth, embalmed corpse, food for worms, fume, late lamented, lava, mortal remains, mummification, mummy, organic remains, reek, relics, reliquiae, remains, scoria, skeleton, slag, smoke, smudge, smut, soot, stiff, sullage, tenement of clay, the dead, the deceased, the defunct, the departed, the loved one
Easton's 1897 Bible Dictionary:

Ashes The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Num. 19:5) when sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Heb. 9:13). To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation (2 Sam. 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, etc.). To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the unsatisfactory nature of idol-worship. (Comp. Hos. 12:1).